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Of the 




James Guthrie 







[Causes of the Lord's Wrath against Scotland; and, A Humble Acknowledgment of the Sins of the Ministry of Scotland.! 


Of the 


WRATH against 


Manifested in his sad late 

Whereunto is added a PAPER, par- 
ticularly holding forth the Sins 
of the MINISTERY. 

Printed in the year 1653. 

Some General Heads of the Causes why the LORD contends 
with the Land, agreed upon (after seeking of the LORD) by the 
Commission of the GENERAL ASSEMBLY 1650, with the 
advice of divers Ministers from several parts of the Kingdom, 
met at Edinburgh, October 1651, so far as for the present they 
could attain light therein, which they offer and advise to be 
made use of by all the LORD's People in the Land, leaving place 
to add, as the Lord shall make further discoveries hereafter of 
the guiltiness of the Land, and intending more fully and 
particularly to enlarge this Paper. 

1. Article. 

THE gross Atheism and ignorance of God and of his Word and Works, that is in a 
great part of the Inhabitants of the Land, which is such, that neither Law nor Gospel, 

nor the most common and necessary points of truth are understood or known by many 

2. Article. Horrible looseness and profanity of Conversation in all sorts, against the 
Commandments, both of the first and second table, which hath so abounded and 
increased, that scarce hath any of the Nations exceeded us therein. 

3. Article. The despising and slighting of JESUS CHRIST offered in the Gospel 
(which we look on as the chief and mother sin of this Nation) and the not valuing and 
improving the Gospel and precious Ordinances of CHRIST, unto the establishing and 
building up of ourselves in the lively faith of CHRIST and power {4} of godliness, 
but either neglecting and despising these things altogether, or else resting upon and 
idolizing outward and bare forms, without studying to know in ourselves, or to 
promove in others the Kingdom of God, which is righteousness and peace, and joy in 
the Holy Ghost: whereby it hath come to pass, that persons not rightly qualified, have 
been admitted unto, and continued in the Work of the Ministry and Elderships, and 
that public repentance and Kirk-censures have been grossly slighted, and the 
Sacrament of the Lord's Supper fearfully polluted by the promiscuous admitting of 
many ignorant and scandalous persons thereto, and many willfully ignorant, and 
openly and continuedly profane, have been kept in the fellowship of this Kirk, 
contrary to the Word of GOD, and Constitutions of this Kirk, and that many other sad 
and fearful consequences have followed unto the profaning of all the Ordinances of 
GOD, and rendering them for the most part barren and fruitless to us: 

4. Art. Not only the exercise of godliness in families much slighted, great men being 
unwilling and ashamed to call on the name of the LORD in their Family (which guilt 
is exceedingly heightened by the continuing of many of these in the same after solemn 
Public confessing thereof, and engaging to the contrary duty in the year 1648.) and 
others much neglecting the same; But also the loathing and hating of the power and 
life of Religion and godliness, and bearing down such as make conscience thereof, or 
aim at any perfection therein, which hath come to such an height, that the Godly are 
every-where reproached, reviled, oppressed and persecuted throughout the Land by 
sundry of all ranks: yea, by sundry Magistrates and Ministers; and the ungodly and 
profane countenanced, encouraged and employed. 

5. Article. The base love of the world, and Covetousness, which hath made not only 
the Body of the People, but many Ministers, more to mind their own things, than the 
things of JESUS CHRIST; and many Masters, Rulers, Magistrates, Officers and 
Soldiers in Armies, exceedingly to abuse their power unto the exercising of 
intolerable oppression of all kinds on the poor, to the grinding of their faces, and 
making their lives bitter to {5} them: Which fountain of Covetousness did also 

produce the great insolencies and oppressions in our Armies in England and Ireland, 
and the fearful perjuries in the Land in the matter of valuation and Excise. 

6. Article. The abusing and prostituting the Public Faith of the Kingdom in the way of 
borrowing of Money and otherwise; unto the dishonouring of GOD, mocking of Men, 
and reproach of the Nation. 

7. Article. In pursuing of necessary Duties of renewing the National Covenant, and 
entering into and renewing the solemn League and Covenant, the way of many men's 
taking these Covenants was without the knowledge of the necessary things contained 
therein, and without reality and sincerity of heart, in order to the performance thereof; 
some being induced thereto by example, some by fear, and not a few by principles of 
policy, following their own carnal and corrupt ends. 

8. Article. The Following the work of God, and pursuing the ends of the Covenant not 
in a Spiritual holy way, setting the LORD always before our eyes, and acknowledging 
him in all our paths, but in a carnal politick way, abusing GOD's Interest for our own 
interest and ends, as if it had been the Work of men, and not the Work of GOD, which 
made us walk more in the counsels of our own hearts than in the Counsel of GOD, 
and to trust more in the arm of flesh, than in the Arm of the Lord. 

9. Article. Backsliding and defection from the Covenant, and from our solemn Vows 
and Engagements; the guilt whereof is exceedingly heightened by the aggravating 
circumstances of our renewed Oaths, and of the LORD'S Mercies and Engagements, 
and of our frequent relapses into the same sins, whereof we once seemed to have 
repented, and which we condemned in others: Of this Defection there be these special 
heads and Steps: 

1 . Step. A foul falling from that honesty of heart, and purity of conversation, and from 
the singleness and integrity of heart, {6} and from the fervency & zeal for GOD that 
appeared to be in many at the first entry to the Covenant; and declining into loose 
walking, and self interest, and neutrality and indifferency, from which have issued 
many sad consequences, especially the great scandal and stumbling of many godly in 
the Land, at us and the Work of God in our hand. 

2. Step. The sitting up of many Professors in the Land under the Gospel, and 
becoming formal and remiss, not entertaining tenderness, spiritual life and soberness 
of mind, which as it hath been amongst the provoking Causes of the LORD'S wrath, 
and hath rendered some obnoxious to snares on both hands, so may it (if it be not 
mourned for and amended) draw on more wrath, and expose to the hazard of errour 
and disaffection to the Work of GOD. 

3. Step. The secret falling off of some, and open falling away of many unto the 
opposite party, after their entering in Covenant, especially that defection carried on 
by James Graham & his party, and that which was afterward carried on by the 
Authors and Abettors of the unlawful Engagement 1648. 

4. Step. The neglecting, obstructing, and condemning, the purging of the Judicatories 
and Army, 1649, and afterward, from scandalous and disaffected men; and of the 
constituting the same of men of known integrity and affection to the Cause, and of a 
blameless and Christian Conversation, notwithstanding of the solemn publick 
Confession of these sins, and Engaging unto these duties a little before that time. 

5. Step. The Authorizing of Commissioners to close a Treaty with the King, for the 
investing him with the Government, upon his subscribing such Demands as were sent 
to him, after he had given many clear evidences of his disaffection and enmity to the 
work and people of God, and was continuing in the same: And the admitting of him to 
the full exercise of his power, and Crowning him, notwithstanding of new discoveries 
of his adhering to his former principles and way, and of many warnings to the 
contrary. {7} 

6. Step. The Rejecting of Discoveries of guiltiness and causes of the Lord's contending 
with us, and of our duty in reference thereto; such as the cause of humiliation offered 
by the Commission of the General Assembly, to the Committee of Estates at Leith, 
before the defeat at Dumbar. The causes of humiliation condescended on 

at Sterlin immediately after the defeat at Dumbar. The Remonstrance of the 
Gentlemen, Ministers and Forces in the West, and many other testimonies of 
Presbyteries and Synods together; neglecting the means tending to peace, and to the 
preventing the effusion of more blood; from pride and bitterness of spirit against those 
who had invaded us. 

7. Step. The Publick Resolutions of Kirk and State, for bringing in the Malignant 
party, first to the Army, and then to the Judicatories, and to the actual intrusting of 
them with the power of the Kingdom, both Military and Civil, whereby the state of 
our cause is not only turned upside down, by subordinating the interest of God to the 
interest of men; but the work and people of God have been entrusted to the enemies 

8. Step. The joining of many engaged in the Covenant and Cause of God, in Arms 
with the Forces of the Kingdom, after that by the Public Resolutions, there was a 
prevailing party of Malignants brought into the Army, who had the sway of Counsels 
and Actings therein, and were carrying on a malignant interest. 

9. Step. The pre-limiting and corrupting of the Gen. Assembly, in regard of the free, 
lawful and right constitution thereof, excluding such as were faithful and constant in 
the Cause, and making it up, for the most part, of those who had been active and 
instrumental in carrying on a course of Defection, or were consenting thereto; 
whereby it came to pass that that Meeting did ratify and approve the Defection itself, 
and did not only censure sundry for protesting against them, but also laid a foundation 
for censuring all such Ministers, and for keeping all such out of the Ministry who did 
not approve of their Constitution and Acts, and did issue Warnings and Declarations 
reflecting exceedingly upon, and contradicting { 8 } and condemning former pious and 
warrantable proceedings, and the instruments thereof. 

10. Article. Deep security, impenitency, obstinacy and incorrigibleness under all 
these, and under all the dreadful strokes of God, and tokens of his indignation against 
us, because of the same, so that whilst he continues to smite, we are so far from 
humbling ourselves, and turning to Him, that we wax worse and worse and sin more 
and more. {9} 

Having at our last Meeting intended and promised to enlarge 
more fully and particularly these General Heads of the LORD's 
Controversy with the Land, then condescended on; We shall 
now prosecute and perform the same, so far as we conceive is 
needful, and may be helpful to others, for the better 
understanding thereof. 

IT were superfluous to speak anything to the 1. Article, which relates to the gross 
ignorance of many thousands in the Land; the truth of the thing being unquestionably 
acknowledged and bemoaned by all the faithful and godly Ministers in the Land, and 
that a great many come to age, are grossly ignorant of the first Principles of Christian 
Religion; which sin of ignorance, although it be extenuated and slightly looked on by 
many, yet it is holden forth by the Holy Ghost in the Scriptures, as the fountain of the 
estrangement of souls from the life of God, Eph. 4.18, through the blindness that is in 
them, having the understanding darkened, being alienated from the life of God, 
through the ignorance that is in them, because of the blindness of their heart; of all 
their disobedience, and living in their lusts, 1 Pet. 1.14, as obedient children, not 
fashioning yourselves according to the former lusts in your ignorance; And as that 
which makes them liable to the wrath of God in the day of Christ's appearance, 
2 Thes. 1.8, When the Lord Jesus shall be revealed from Heaven with his mighty 
Angels inflaming fire, {10} taking vengeance on them who know not God, and obey 
not the Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ. The guilt of this sin is much aggravated by 

these Circumstances; (1.) It is willful under the light of the Gospel, and the means of 
knowledge. (2.) In regard of long continuing therein, many have lived under it for so 
many years together, even till their old age. (3.) From the grossness of it, being such 
in many, as they know almost nothing of the very Letter of the Scriptures, either of 
their sin and misery, or of the mercy and remedy that is holden forth through Jesus 
Christ, or of the duty which they owe to God and their Neighbour: nothing almost 
either of Law or Gospel, of the Covenant of Grace, or of the Covenant of Works, of 
Commandments, Threatenings or Promises, except in such a general and confused 
way as is altogether useless unto them, and fruitless in them. (4.) In regard of the 
multitude of these who lie under it, which is very great in all the corners of the Land, 
especially in the Highlands. (5.) In regard of the quality of persons who are not only 
servants and Commons, but Masters of Families, and persons of some note in Burghs 
and in the Country; yea, not a few who have the place of Magistrates and Elders. The 
Article doth also mention ignorance of the Works of God, by which is meant not only 
the Works of Creation wherein the Eternal Power and Godhead are clearly seen, Rom. 
1.20, For the invisible things of him from the Creation of the World, are clearly seen, 
being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal Power and Godhead; 
but also the ignorance of the Works of Providence, which are great and 
marvelous, Rev. 15.3, And they sing the song of Moses the servant of God, and the 
song of the Lamb, saying, Great and marvelous are thy works Lord God Almighty, 
just and true are thy ways thou King of Saints. And albeit these should be sought out 
of all these that take pleasure therein, Psalm 1 1 1 .2, and the right understanding and 
observation of them, hath a large promise made thereunto, Psalm 107.43, Who is wise 
and will observe these things, even they shall understand the lovingkindness of the 
Lord. Yet doth the ignorance thereof exceedingly abound amongst many, especially 
the ignorance and not observing, but forgetting the works of mercy and judgments, 
which GOD hath wrought amongst ourselves; which sin as it proved an in-let to many 
other provocations, from the 1th verse of that Psalm throughout, {11} so hath it great 
threatenings pronounced against it, and sore judgments inflicted on 
it, Psalm 28.5, Because they regard not the works of the Lord, nor the operation of his 
hands, he shall destroy them, and not build them up. Isa. 5.11,12, Woe to them that 
rise up early in the morning, that they may follow strong drink, and continue all night, 
till wine inflame them, and the wine and the pipe, the viol, the tabret and the harp are 
in their feasts, but they regard not the work of the Lord, nor consider the operation of 
his hands. Psalm 106.7,13,21,22. Our fathers understood not thy wonders in Egypt, 
they remembered not the multitude of thy mercies, but provoked him at the sea, they 
soon forgot his works, they waited not for his counsel. They for gat their Saviour, who 
had done great things in Egypt, wondrous works in the land of Ham, and terrible 
things by the red sea. In this Article also, Atheism is joined with Ignorance, which as 
it is the root and fountain of all other sin, Psalm 14.1, The fool hath said in his heart, 
there is no God, they are corrupt, they have done abominable works, there is none 

that doth good. So it is also the root and fountain of all misery, Eph. 2.12, At that time 
ye were without Christ, being strangers from the Commonwealth of Israel, and 
strangers from the Covenant of promise, having no hope, and being without God in 
the world. And yet this doth possess many, there being multitudes of that wicked 
sort, Psalm 10.4, Who through the pride of their heart, will not seek God, God is not 
in all their thoughts. These are far from acknowledging him in all their ways, and 
aiming at his glory in all their actions, according to these divine 
rules, Proverbs 3.6, In all thy ways acknowledge him, and he shall direct thy paths. 
1 Cor. 10.31, Whether therefore ye eat or ye drink, or whatsoever ye do, in word or 
deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, giving thanks to the Father through 
him. But they do live as if there were no God, or as if he had forsaken the earth, and 
did not see. Ezek. 9.9, Then said he unto me, The iniquity of the house of Israel and 
Judah is exceeding great, and the Land is full of blood, and the City full of 
perverseness, for they say, The Lord hath forsaken the earth, and the Lord seeth 
not; Or as if the Lord would not do good or evil, like these who are threatened, Zeph. 
1.12, 1 will search Jerusalem with candles, and punish the men that are settled on 
their lees, that say in their heart, the Lord will not do good, neither will he do 
evil. {12} 

The second Article. 

THE second Article concerning looseness and profanity, is no less true and evident 
than the first, it being undeniable that a flood of profanity hath overflowed the whole 
Land, and that the most part of the Inhabitants thereof have corrupted their way before 
him, unto the dishonouring of his Name, reproach of our profession, and provoking 
the eyes of his Glory, Isa. 1.2-5, Hear O heavens, and give ear O earth for the Lord 
hath spoken, I have nourished and brought up children, and they have rebelled 
against me; the ox hath known his owner, and the ass his master's crib, but Israel doth 
not know, my people doth not consider: Ah, sinful Nation, a people loaden with 
iniquity, a seed of evil doers, children that are corrupters, they have forsaken the 
Lord, they have provoked the holy one of Israel to Anger, they have gone away 
backward; why should ye be stricken any more, ye will revolt more and more, the 
whole head is sick, and the whole heart is faint. Ezek. 36.21-23, But I had pity for my 
holy name's sake, which the house of Israel hath profaned amongst the Heathen 
whither they went: Therefore say to the house of Israel, thus saith the Lord God, I do 
not this for your sake, O house of Israel, but for my holy Name's sake, which ye have 
profaned amongst the Heathen whither ye went, and I will sanctify my great name 
which was profaned among the Heathen which ye have profaned in the midst of them, 
and the Heathen shall know that I am the Lord, saith the Lord God, when I shall be 
sanctified in you, before their eyes. Malach. 2.11-13, Judah hath dealt treacherously, 

and an abomination is committed in Israel and Jerusalem, for Judah hath profaned 
the holiness of the Lord which he loved, and hath married the daughter of a strange 
god, the Lord will cut off the man that doth this, the master and the scholar out of the 
Tabernacles of Jacob, and him that offereth an offering unto the Lord of hosts; and 
this have ye done again, covering the Altar of the Lord with tears, with weeping and 
with crying out, in so much that he regardeth not the offering any more, or receiveth it 
with good will at your hands. Isa. 3.8, For Jerusalem is ruined and Judah is fallen; 
because their tongue and their doings are against { 13 } the Lord, to provoke the eyes 
of his glory. The guilt of this abounding looseness and profanity is so much the more 
heightened by these circumstances that do attend it: First, that it is under the clear 
light of the Gospel, of the Word preached now for many years throughout the Land, in 
purity and plenty. Secondly, that it is contrary to many solemn Vows, Engagements, 
Oaths and Covenants taken on us before God, Angels and men to the contrary. 
Thirdly, that it is under many blessings, mercies and deliverances from the Lord. 
Fourthly that it is under many chastisements, rods and judgments, especially the 
sword and pestilence, by which two, many thousands in the Land have been taken 
away within these few years. Fifthly, that it is common and universal, and hath 
reached over all sorts of persons, Noblemen, Gentlemen, Barons, Burgesses, Ministers 
and Commons. Sixthly, from the greatness of it, shamelessness of it, avowedness and 
grossness of it, which is such that many declare their sin as Sodom, and commit all 
sorts of wickedness with greediness. Seventhly, from the kinds of it, some of the chief 
and most common of which, especially these who are not named in some other Article 
of the former Paper; we shall here touch: (1.) Impatiency, murmuring and fretting 
against God and his works, which hath made many to weary of the charges and 
expense they have been put to, for the Gospel, and to wish there had been no such 
thing as the entering into the National Covenant, and the renewing and entering into 
the solemn League and Covenant, not to an few to curse and blaspheme the 
Covenants, and to look on them as the rise and original of all the evils wherewith the 
Land hath been afflicted; and it is an great provocation before God, as it appears from 
these and the like Scriptures, Numb. 14.1,2,3,4,10,11,12, And all the Congregations 
lifted up their voice and weeped and cried, and the people weeped that night, and all 
the children of Israel murmured against Moses, and against Aaron, and the whole 
Congregation said to them, would to God we had died in the land of Egypt, or would 
to God we had died in the wilderness; and wherefore hath the Lord brought us to this 
land to fall by the sword, that our wives, and our children should be a prey, were it 
not better for us to return to Egypt? And they said one to another, let us make a 
Captain, let us return to Egypt; then Moses and Aaron fell on their faces before the 
Assemblies of all the Congregation of the children of Israel, {14} but all the 
Congregation bade stone them with stones, and the glory of the Lord appeared in the 
Tabernacle of the Congregation before all the Children ^/Israel: And the Lord said 
unto Moses, How long will this People provoke me? and how long will it be ere this 

People believe me, for all the signs I have shewed amongst them? I will smite them 
with pestilence, and disinherit them, and will make of thee a Nation, mightier and 
greater than they. Numbers 21. 5, 6 And they journeyed from Mount Hor, by the way of 
the Red Sea, to compass the Land o/Edom; and the soul of the People was much 
discouraged because of the way; and the People spake against GOD, and against 
Moses, Wherefore have ye brought us up out of the Land to die in the wilderness? for 
there is no bread, neither is there any water; for our soul loatheth this light bread: 
and the Lord sent fiery serpents among the people, and much people o/Israel died. 1 
Cor. 11.10, Neither be ye murmurers, as some of them also murmured, and were 
destroyed of the destroyer. (2.) Using not only of charms, though it be condemned in 
the Scriptures, Deut. 18.1 1, A Charmer, or a consulter with familiar spirits, or a 
Wizard, or a Necromancer, shall not be found amongst you; for all that do these 
things are an abomination to the Lord: yet is very frequent among the Commons: But 
also Sorcery and Witchcraft, which is an abomination, Exod. 22.18, Thou shalt not 
suffer a Witch to live. Deut. 18.10, There shall not be found amongst you any that 
useth Divination, or an enchanter, or any Witch; especially amongst these who have 
been baptized in the Name of the Lord Jesus, and yet doth (by the great discoveries 
thereof which hath been of late) appear to be very frequent in the Land. (3.) Ordinary 
swearing by them that are no Gods, Jer. 5.7, How shall I pardon thee for this? thy 
Children have forsaken Me, and sworn by them who are no Gods, when I have fed 
them to the full. Zeph. 1.4,5, / will also stretch out my hand against Judah, and all the 
inhabitants of Jerusalem; and I will cut off the remnant of Baal from this place, and 
the name of the Chemarims, with the Priests: and them that worship the host of 
heaven upon the house tops, and them that worship, and that swear by the Name of 
the LORD, and that swear by Malcham: such as Faith, Truth, Soul, Conscience, and 
by the holy and blessed Name of GOD Himself, and by His Blood and Wounds, and 
fearful Execrations and Cursings, which though they {15} be condemned, forbidden 
and threatened in the Scriptures, Exod. 20.7, Thou shalt not take the Name of the Lord 
thy God in vain. Lev. 19.12, Thou shalt not swear by my Name falsely, neither shalt 
thou profane the Name of thy God: I am the Lord. Matt. 5.33-37, Again, ye have 
heard it said by them of old time, Thou shalt not forswear thyself, but shalt perform to 
the Lord thy God thy Oaths. But I say unto you, Swear not at all, neither by Heaven, 
for it is God's Throne: neither by the Earth, for it is His Footstool: neither 
by Jerusalem, for it is the City of the great King: neither shalt thou swear by thy Head, 
for thou cannot make one hair white or black. But let your communication be, Yea, 
yea; Nay, nay: for whatsoever is more than these, cometh of evil. Jer. 23.10, For the 
Land is full of Adulteries; because of Swearing the Land mourneth, and the pleasant 
places in the wilderness are dried up, because their course is evil, and their force is 
not right. Zech. 5.1-4, Then I looked, and lift up mine eyes, and behold, a flying Roll: 
the length thereof is twenty cubits, and the breadth thereof ten cubits. Then said he 
unto me, This is the curse that goeth over the face of the whole Earth: for every one 

that stealeth, shall be cut off as on this side, according to it: and every one that 
sweareth, shall be cut off on that side, according to it. I will bring it forth, saith the 
Lord of hosts, and it shall enter into the house of the Thief, and into the house of him 
that sweareth falsely by my Name: and it shall remain in the midst of his house, and 
shall consume the timber and stones thereof. Yet these are so frequent and habitual 
amongst us, that in many parts of the Land it is a rare thing to find a man or a woman, 
that in their ordinary speech is not addicted to some one of these. (4.) Ordinary and 
gross profanation of the Lord's Day; not only by slighting of, and absenting from the 
Publick Worship with the Congregation, which is a fault whereof many are guilty; and 
not attending to the Word, or joining in Prayer and singing of Psalms, when they are 
present, but also by traveling, trysting, working, speaking our own words and 
otherwise: The danger and heinousness of this sin appears, from Exod. 
20.8, Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy. Nehem. 13.15-18, In those days, saw 
I in Judah, some treading Wine-presses on the Sabbath, and bringing in Sheaves, and 
loading Asses, and also Wine-Grapes, and Figs, and all manner of burdens which 
they brought to Jerusalem on {16} the Sabbath Day: and I testified against them in 
the day wherein they sold victuals. There dwelt men o/Tyre also therein, which 
brought fish and all manner of ware, which they sold to the children 
of Juda and Jerusalem on the Sabbath: then I contended with the Nobles o/Juda, and 
said unto them, What evil thing is this which ye do, and profane the Sabbath day, did 
not your fathers thus, and did not our God bring all this evil on us, and on this city? 
yet ye bring more wrath on Israel, by profaning the Sabbath. Isai. 58.13,14, If thou 
turn away thy foot from the Sabbath, from doing thy own pleasure on my holy day, 
and call the Sabbath a delight, and the holy of the Lord, honourable, and shalt honour 
him, not doing thine own ways, nor finding thine own pleasures, nor speaking thine 
own words, then shalt thou delight thyself in the Lord, and thou shalt ride on the high 
places of the earth, and I will feed thee with the heritage of Jacob thy father, for the 
mouth of the Lord hath spoken it. (5.) Not giving obedience to authority to their just 
and lawful commands for conscience sake, Rom. 13.5, Wherefore ye must needs be 
subject, not only for wrath, but also for conscience sake. And on the other hand, an 
implicit and willing following of their unlawful commands, obeying men rather than 
God, Hos. 5.11, Ephraim is oppressed and broken in judgment, because he willingly 
walked after the commandment. Acts 4.19, Whether it be right in the sight of God to 
hearken to you rather than to God, judge ye. The gross neglect of many parents in the 
instructing and breeding of their Children in knowledge, virtue, and piety, Eph. 
6.4, Ye fathers, provoke not your children to wrath, but bring them up in the nurture 
and admonition of the Lord. And the untowardness and ingratitude of many Children 
to their Parents, Eph. 6.1-3, Children, obey your parents in the Lord, for this is right. 
Honour thy father and mother (which is the first commandment with promise) that it 
may be well with thee, and that thou may live long on the earth. (6.) Self murder, 
unnatural murder of Children, enmity, malice, strife, contention, especially at Law 

suits, revenge, and blood, which as they are ancient sins of this Nation, and did much 
appear in the banding of Clans one against another, and have been little mourned for, 
or repented of to this day, so do they still continue whilst we profess the unity of the 
Faith in Christ, and are joined in Covenants of love and peace one with another, 
{17} Jam. 3.14-16, But if ye have bitter envying and strife in your hearts, glory not, 
and lie not against the truth. This wisdom descendeth not from above, but is earthly, 
sensual, devilish: For where envying and strife is, there is confusion and every evil 
work. 1 Cor. 5.8, Therefore let us keep the feast not with old Leaven, neither with the 
leaven of malice and wickedness, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth. 
Titus 3.3, For we ourselves were sometime disobedient, foolish, deceived, serving 
divers lusts and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful, and hating one another. 
Levit. 19.18, Thou shalt not avenge nor bear any grudge against the children of thy 
people; but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself, I am the LORD. Prov. 1.16, For 
their feet run to evil, and they make haste to shed blood, Gal. 5.15, For if ye bite and 
devour one another, take heed that ye be not consumed one of another. (7.) 
Intemperance, gluttony and drunkenness; the last of which is become so common, that 
it hath overrun almost the whole Nation, so that it is hard to find many who are not 
tipplers, or common drunkards, or will drink drunk on occasion and with company: 
With this sin we may join the immoderate and excessive use of Tobacco, which is 
such, that much money and precious time is needlessly and superfluously spent that 
way by persons of all sorts. Isa. 5.1 1,12,22, Woe to them that rise up early in the 
morning to drink strong drink, and continue till night, till Wine inflame them; and the 
harp, and the viol, and tabret, and the pipe, and wine are in their feasts. Woe to them 
that are mighty to drink wine, and men of might to mingle strong drink. Prov. 23.29- 
32, Who hath woe? Who hath sorrow? Who hath contentions? Who hath babblings? 
Who hath wounds without cause? Who hath redness of eyes? They that tarry long at 
the wine, they that go to seek mixed wine. Look not thou on the wine when it is red, 
when it gives its colour in the cup, when it moveth itself aright; at last it biteth like a 
serpent, and stingeth like an adder. Eph. 5.18, fie not drunk with wine, wherein is 
excess. (8.) Vanity and excess in apparel, and in household stuff, far above that which 
becometh the sobriety of the Gospel, or that the condition of such a people can reach 
unto, Isa. 3, from the 16th verse, Because the daughters ofZion are haughty, and walk 
with stretched out necks, and wanton eyes, and mincing as they go, and making a 
tinkling with their feet, therefore the LORD {18} will smite with a scab the crown of 
the head of the daughters ofZion, and the LORD will discover their secret parts. And 
in that day the Lord will take away the bravery of their tinkling ornaments about their 
feet, and their cauls, and their round tires like the Moon, the chains, and the 
bracelets, and the mufflers, & the bonnets, & the ornaments of the legs, and the head- 
bands, and the tablets, and the ear-rings, and the nose-jewels, the changeable suits of 
apparel, the mantles and the wimples, the crisping pins, the glasses and the fine linen, 
and the hoods, and the vails; and it shall come to pass that in stead of a sweet smell 

there shall be stink, and in stead of a girdle a rent, and in stead of well set hair, 
baldness, and in stead of a stomacher, a girding of sackcloth, and burning in stead of 
beauty, thy men shall fall by the sword, and thy mighty men in the war, and her gates 
shall lament and mourn, and she being desolate shall sit on the ground. 1 Pet. 
3.3, Whose adorning let it not be outward adorning of plaiting the hair, and of 
wearing of gold, and putting on of apparel. Zeph. 1.8, And it shall come to pass in the 
day of the LORD'S sacrifice that I will punish the Princes; and the King's children 
and all such as are clothed with strange apparel. (9.) Uncleanness and filthiness of all 
sorts, rotten speeches, filthy communication, chambering and wantonness, & 
fornication, adultery, incest, in some places beastiality, and sodomy, especially 
fornications and adulteries which abound in many places; the first whereof, viz. 
fornication is by many accounted no sin. For discovering the greatness of these sins, 
consider, Exod. 20.14, Thou shalt not commit adultery. 1 Cor. 6.13, Now the body is 
not for fornication, but for the Lord, and the Lord, for the body. 1 Cor. 5.1, It is 
reported commonly, that there is fornication amongst you, and such fornication as is 
not so much as named among the Gentiles, that one should have his father's wife. 
Rom. 13.13, Let us walk honestly as in the day, not in chambering and wantonness. 
Eph. 5.3, But fornication and all uncleanness, let it not once be named among you. 4th 
verse, Neither filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jesting, which are not convenient. 
(10.) Prodigality, oppression, extortions, usury, bribery, theft, robbery, false weights 
and measures, injustice and unfaithfulness in Contracts and Bargains, with fraudulent 
dealing and deceiving one another; Artificial dearthing of victuals and other things, 
the livelihood and maintenance of the People. Exod. 20.15, Thou shalt not steal. Ezek. 
22.12, In thee {19} have they taken gifts to shed blood, thou hast taken usury and 
increase, thou hast greedily gained of thy neighbour by extortion. Amos 5.12, They 
afflict the just, they have taken a bribe, they turn aside the poor from his right. Micah 
6.10,1 1, Are there yet treasures of wickedness in the house of the wicked, and the 
scant measure that is abominable? Shall I count them pure with the wicked balances, 
and with the bag of deceitful weights? 1 Thess. 4.6, That no man go beyond and 
defraud his brother in any matter, for the Lord is the avenger of all such. (11.) Lying, 
slandering, backbiting, detracting, reviling, tale-bearing, rash censuring, and defaming 
and speaking ill one of another, with false witnessing and perjury, breach of Oaths, 
Covenants, promises. Exodus 20.16, Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy 
neighbour. Psalm 50.19,20, Thou givest thy mouth to evil, and thy tongue frameth 
deceit: thou sittest and speakest against thy brother; thou slanderest thine own 
mother's son. 2 Cor. 12.20, Lest there be debates, envying, wrath, strife, backbiting, 
whisperings, swellings, and tumults. Matt. 7.1, Judge not, that ye be not judged. Rom. 
1.31, without understanding, Covenant-breakers, without natural affection, 
implacable, unmerciful. 2 Tim. 3.1,2, This know also, that in the last days, perilous 
times shall come, for men shall be lovers of themselves, covetous, boasters, proud, 
blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unholy. Before we close this Article of profanity, 

we cannot but in a special way take notice of the carriage of many beggars in the 
Land, amongst whom for a long time past, abominations of all sorts hath abounded; 
which sin lies so much heavier on the Land, because though it hath been generally 
known and acknowledged by all, yet hath no effectual course been taken to this day 
for the helping thereof. 

3. Article. 

THE third Article which relates to JESUS CHRIST and the Gospel, is in a great 
measure spoken to in the Causes of Humiliation, concerning the contempt of the 
Gospel, condescended on by the Commission of the General Assembly at Perth, 
Dec. 22, 1650, yet some particulars there be in the Article, which we shall now speak 
unto: (1.) The resting on outward and bare forms, without studying to know in 
ourselves, or to promove in others, the Kingdom of GOD, which is righteousness, and 
peace, and joy in {20} the Holy Ghost. The Work of Reformation in the outward part 
of it, or external means, that do relate to Worship and Ordinances of GOD and the 
purity thereof, is certainly a thing excellent and desirable, which all the lovers of pure 
Religion and undefiled, ought to endeavour to attain to and preserve, Ezra 
7.27, Blessed be the Lord God of our fathers, who hath put such a thing as this in the 
King's heart; to beautify the house of the Lord at Jerusalem. Exod. 
39.42,43, According to all that the Lord commanded Moses, so the Children of Israel 
made all the work. And Moses did look on all the work, and behold they had done it, 
as the Lord commanded, even so had they done, and Moses blessed them. Ezek. 
42.11, And the way before them was like the appearing of the Chambers that were 
toward the North, as long as they, and as broad as they, and all their goings out were 
both according to their fashions, and according to their doors. Heb. 3.2, Who was 
faithful to him that appointed him, as also Moses was faithful in all his house. Heb. 
8.5, Who serve unto the example and shadow of heavenly things, as Moses was 
admonished of God, when he was about to make the tabernacle; for, see (saith he) 
that thou make all things according to the pattern shewed thee in the mount. But when 
these things are rested upon and idolized, they do through our corruption become 
snares to us, to keep us from seeking in to more excellent and better things, to wit, 
communion and fellowship with GOD, and the power and life of godliness, which are 
the kernel, whereof these things are but the shell and the scrooff, and being rested 
upon, do provoke the Lord either to make them barren and fruitless to us, or else to 
loath us in the following of them, or to remove them wholly away from us. Isa. 1.10- 
15, Hear the word of the Lord ye rulers of Sodom, give ear to the Law of our God ye 
people of Gomorrah; To what purpose is the multitude of your sacrifices to me, saith 
the Lord? I am full of the burnt-offerings of rams, and the fat of fed beasts: I delight 

not in the blood of bullocks, or of lambs, or of he-goats. When ye come to appear 
before me, who hath required this at your hands, to tread my Courts? Bring no more 
vain oblation, incense is an abomination to me, the new moons and the Sabbaths, and 
the calling of the assembly, I cannot away with, it is an iniquity, even the solemn 
meeting: your new moons and appointed feasts my soul hateth, they are a trouble to 
me, I am weary to bear them: And when ye spread forth your {21 }hands, I will hide 
mine eyes from you; yea when ye make many prayers, I will not hear: your hands are 
full of blood. Isa. 66.1-4, Thus saith the Lord, The heavens is my throne, and the earth 
is my footstool, where is the house ye will build me, and where is the place of my rest? 
for all these things hath mine hand made, and all these things have been saith the 
Lord. But to this man will I look, even to him that is of a poor and contrite spirit, and 
trembleth at my word. He that killeth an ox is as if he slew a man: he that sacrificeth a 
lamb, as if he cut off a dog's neck: he that offereth an oblation, as he that offereth 
swine's blood; he that burneth incense, as he that blesseth an idol. Yea, they have 
chosen their own ways, and their soul delighteth in their abominations; I also will 
choose their delusions, and bring their fears on them, because when I called, none did 
answer; and when I spake, they did not hear, but did evil before mine eyes, and chose 
that in which I delighted not. Jer. 7.4,8-14, Trust ye not in lying words, saying, The 
temple of the Lord, the temple of the Lord, are these. Behold, ye trust in lying words 
that cannot profit. Will ye steal, murder, commit adultery, and swear falsely, and burn 
incense to Baal, and walk after other gods whom ye know not, and come and stand 
before me in this house, which is called by my name, and say, we are delivered to do 
all these abominations? Is this house which is called by my Name become a den of 
robbers in your eyes? Behold, even I have seen it, saith the Lord; but go ye to my 
place which was in Shiloh, where I set my Name at the first, and see what I did to it, 
for the wickedness of my people Israel. And now because ye have done all these 
works, saith the Lord, and I spake to you, rising up early, and speaking, but ye heard 
not; and I called you, but ye answered not: Therefore will I do unto this house which 
is called by my Name, wherein ye trust, and to the place which I gave to your fathers, 
as I have done to Shiloh. Ezek. 7.20-22, As for the beauty of his ornament, he set it in 
Majesty; but they made the Images of their abominations, and of their detestable 
things therein: therefore have I set it far from them. And I will give it to the hands of 
the strangers for a prey, and to the wicked of the earth for a spoil, and they shall 
pollute it; my face also will I turn from them, and they shall pollute my secret place, 
for the robbers shall enter into it and defile it. Zeph. 3.13, The remnant of Israel shall 
not do iniquity, nor speak lies, neither shall a deceitful tongue be {22} found in their 
mouth, for they shall feed and lie down, and none shall make them afraid. And this 
hath been undoubtedly in a great measure the fault of many in this Land, the height of 
whose zeal and endeavours hath been for the most part to attain the purity of 
Ordinances, not labouring for the power thereof, whence hath issued a great deal of 
boasting and confidence in a Covenant and pure Ordinances, and a well reformed 

Kirk, when in the meanwhile most men be strangers to that grace that bringeth 
salvation, and teacheth to deny ungodliness and worldly lusts, and to live soberly, 
righteously and godly in this present world. Titus 2.11,12, For the grace of God that 
bringeth salvation, hath appeared to all men, teaching us, that denying ungodliness 
and worldly lusts, we should live godly, righteously and soberly in this present world. 
The second is the sad Consequents that hath followed on this, whereof there be four 
special in the Article. 

The First whereof is, The admitting of persons not rightly qualified to the work of the 
Ministry, and Elderships in Congregations, and the continuing of such in these places. 
For understanding of which, ye would consider, that the Word of God, and Acts and 
Constitutions of our Kirk, do require of Ministers, not only that they be men of 
knowledge, understanding and conscience, for ruling in the house of God, and of a 
blameless conversation; but that they be sanctified and holy, and spiritual, and have 
their senses exercised in spiritual things: A Bishop (saith Paul, Titus 1.8) must be a 
lover of good men, sober, just, holy, temperate. And the same Apostle, 1 Tim. 3.6, 
tells us, he must not be a novice, or one newly come in to the faith. He would not only 
have him in the faith, that he may speak because he believes, and be able to comfort 
others with the consolations wherewith he hath been himself comforted of God, 
2 Cor. 1.3,4, Blessed be God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, even the 
Father of mercies, and God of all comfort, who comforteth us in all our tribulation, 
that we may be able to comfort others who are in trouble, with the comfort wherewith 
we ourselves have been comforted of God. In the Acts of the Assembly 
at Edinburgh 1596, March 26, it is provided, That the trial of the persons to be 
admitted to the Ministry hereafter, consist not only in their learning and ability to 
preach, but also in conscience and feeling, and spiritual wisdom; and in the same Act 
it is provided, that such as shall not be found given to sanctification and {23 } prayer, 
that study not to be powerful and spiritual, but be cold, and wanting spiritual Zeal, that 
all such persons be censured, and continuing therein, be deprived: Which Act was 
revived in the General Assembly 1638, likewise in the General Assembly 1646. The 
putting in, and holding in of insufficient and suspected men, who favour the things of 
this life; and the keeping the door straiter on these whom God hath sealed, then on 
these who have less evidence of Grace and holiness, is reckoned amongst the 
enormities and corruptions of the Ministry in their callings; and amongst the remedies 
of these corruptions, it is provided, That all Presbyteries make great conscience to 
have all vacant places, within their several bounds settled with godly and able men, 
wherever they be found. These Scriptures and Acts, with sundry others of the like 
kind, require, not only that a Minister be negatively holy, that is, one who is not 
scandalous in his life and conversation, but that he be positively holy, acquainted with 
God and spiritual things, and a partaker of the grace of the Gospel in himself, which 
he preacheth to others; and religious reason doth require the same: How shall he be a 

Christian Minister, who is not a Christian? how shall he preach to others, who doth 
not himself believe? how shall he know to speak a word in season, to whom the Lord 
hath not given the tongue of the Learned? to comfort others with the consolations of 
God, who was never comforted therewith himself? How shall he pray for others, who 
cannot pray for himself? How shall he reveal Christ, who never knew him? How shall 
he naturally care for souls, who hath not the love of Christ dwelling in him? The 
Scriptures do also require of ruling Elders, not only that they be men of 
understanding, knowledge, and wisdom, and such as are able to discern and rule, but 
also that they be blameless and holy, as is evident in the Epistles 
of Paul toTimothy and Titus. And the Discipline of our Kirk requires, That besides 
abilities to govern, consult, admonish, and order all things appertaining to the state of 
the Congregation, that they be men of a good life and holy conversation, without 
blame, and all suspicion, careful for the Flock, wise; and above all things fearing God: 
notwithstanding hereof, many literal and formal men, who are strangers to the mystery 
of godliness, & work of the Spirit of life, which is in Jesus Christ, are admitted unto, 
and continued in the Ministry and Elderships (nay, in some places, especially in 
Elderships, men that are ignorant and {24} scandalous) by which things it comes to 
pass that there is a lifeless, dead, and careless Ministry, and unprofitable Elderships in 
many Congregations, and that the growth of the Gospel and godliness, is exceedingly 
obstructed and hindered. 

The second Consequent which is mentioned, is, The gross slighting and mocking of 
Kirk Censures, and of Publick Repentance; whereof it would be considered, That the 
Word of God, Acts and Constitutions of this Kirk, do require of these who are to make 
Publick Profession of their Repentance for scandalous offences, not only a naked and 
bare profession of Repentance, but such a profession of Repentance, as doth hold 
forth a real conviction and sorrow for sin; and not only the ceasing from the sin for the 
time, but the bringing forth of the contrary good fruits of sobriety, righteousness and 
holiness, Numb. 5.6-8, Speak unto the Children of Israel, when a man or a woman 
shall commit any sin that men commit, to do a trespass against the Lord, and that 
person be guilty; then they shall confess their sin which they have done; and he shall 
recompence his trespass with the principal thereof, and add unto it the fifth part 
thereof, and give it unto him against whom he hath trespassed. But if the man have no 
kinsman to recompence the trespass unto, let the trespass be recompensed unto the 
Lord, even unto the Priest: beside the Ram of atonement, whereby an atonement shall 
be made for him. It is appointed that offenders who have wronged others, and were to 
be admitted to the trespass offering, should not only make confession of their sins, but 
also make satisfaction to the party to whom the wrong was done, which satisfaction is 
a fruit of righteousness; to which agrees that of Jesus Christ, Matt. 5.23, If thou bring 
thy gift to the Altar, and there remembrest that thy brother hath ought against thee, 
verse 24, leave there thy gift before the Altar, and go thy way, and first be reconciled 

to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift. In that publick penitential confession 
that is mentioned, Ezra 10.10,11, Ye have transgressed and taken strange wives, and 
increased the trespasses of Israel: now therefore make confession to the LORD GOD 
of your fathers, and do his pleasure, and separate yourselves from the people of the 
land, and from the strange wives. There is not only a confession of the sin, but a doing 
of the LORD'S pleasure, and a separating of themselves from the people of the land, 
and from the strange wives. Psalm 51, which was penned to be a testimony {25 } 
of David's Publick Repentance, for the scandalous sins of murder and adultery 
committed by him; and was therefore committed to the chief Musician, to be 
Published in the Sanctuary and Temple, doth contain many notable Evidences of 
Repentance and Reformation: And we see the Apostle Paul, 2 Cor. 2.7, doth not give 
charge to the Corinthians for the receiving the Incestuous person, until he is in some 
appearance of hazard to be swallowed up with too much sorrow, 7th verse, Ye ought 
to forgive him and comfort him, lest perhaps such an one be swallowed up with 
overmuch sorrow; which doth argue that the Apostle thought a great measure of real 
conviction and sorrow requisite in such an one, before he ought to be received: 
According to these Scriptures, the first book of Discipline, in the 7th head thereof, 
requires that before scandalous persons be admitted to the Publick confession of their 
Repentance, that there appear in them signs of unfeigned repentance; and the form and 
order of Publick repentance appointed by the General Assembly of the Ministers and 
Elders, in the which they ought sharply to be examined what fear and terrour they 
have of God's judgments, and what hatred for sin, and dolor for the same, and what 
sense and feeling they have of God's mercies; in the which if they be ignorant, they 
ought diligently to be instructed: For it is but a mocking to present such to Publick 
Repentance as neither know what sin is, what Repentance is, what Grace is, nor by 
whom God's mercy and favour is purchased, thereafter the offender shall be instructed 
in the Assembly, so that he have some taste of God's Judgments, but chiefly of God's 
Mercies through Jesus Christ, he may be presented before the Publick Kirk; And the 
Act of the General Assembly at Edinburgh 1596, March 26, That none falling in 
Publick scandal be received in the fellowship of the Kirk, except his Minister have 
some appearance and warrant in his Conscience, that he hath both a feeling of sin, and 
an apprehension of mercy; and for this effect, that the Minister travail with him in 
Doctrine, and private instruction, to bring him thereto; especially in the Doctrine of 
Publick Repentance, which being neglected, the Publick place of Repentance is turned 
to a mocking. And the Acts of the General Assembly at Edinburgh 1649, provides that 
because many heretofore have made a shew and profession of Repentance, who were 
not convinced of their guiltiness, nor humbled for the same, but did thereafter return 
like the dog to the vomit, { 26 } and with the sow to the puddle, unto the mocking of 
God, the exceeding great reproach and detriment of his Cause; Therefore for the better 
discerning the truth & sincerity of the Repentance of these who desire to be admitted 
to the Covenant and Communion, it is appointed and ordained that none of the 

persons who are debarred from the Covenant and Communion, shall be received and 
admitted thereunto, but such as after trial shall be found for some competent time 
either before or after the offer of their Repentance, according to the discretion of the 
respective Judicatories, to have in their ordinary conversation given real testimony of 
their dislike of the late unlawful Engagement, and of all the courses and ways of 
Malignants, and of their sorrow for their accession to the same, and to live godly, 
righteously, & soberly &c. And reason also proves the same point, for whether we 
take Publick Repentance in reference to the removing of scandal and offence given to 
the Kirk, or in reference to the absolution of the party from the guilt of the same 
intimated to him by the Minister as the servant of Christ, and in the Name of Christ, 
on his Repentance; it must always be understood of such a profession of Repentance, 
as doth evidence the reality and humility thereof in outward fruits; for a real scandal 
cannot be removed by a bare and verbal profession without fruits; neither can a 
minister with any persuasion of conscience make any intimation of mercy and pardon 
to him of the reality and sincerity of whose profession he hath no testimony in his 
carriage and conversation. Yet notwithstanding of these things many scandalous 
persons of all sorts, especially these who were profane Malignants disaffected to the 
Work of GOD and his people this last year, have been admitted to Publick 
Repentance, on bare convictions of Repentance and sorrow, without any real evidence 
and fruit thereof in their carriage and conversation; nay, in many of them there was 
presumptions in the contrary; which as it hath proven a snare to their souls, so hath it 
exceedingly provoked God, and stumbled the godly, and rendered Kirk Censures and 
Publick Repentance base and contemptible. 

The third consequence is, That the Sacrament of the LORD'S Supper hath been 
fearfully polluted and profaned, by the promiscuous admitting of many scandalous 
and ignorant persons thereto: The truth whereof in the matter of fact, as it hath been 
the constant burden and complaint of all the godly Ministers and {27} people 
in Scotland these many years past; so it hath been, oft confessed in the Causes of 
solemn Fasts, and publick Humiliation and particularly in that publick 
Acknowledgement of Sin that was made by the Kirk of Scotland, in the year 1648. 
That it may be the better understood and taken up; ye would consider first what 
persons by the Word of GOD, and doctrine of the Kirk of Scotland, are to be debarred 
from, or admitted to the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper; how the rule of the Word 
and constitutions of the Kirk are kept in this particular. For the first, it is clear from 
the Word of God, and the Doctrine of the Kirk of Scotland, that all scandalous and 
ignorant persons ought to be debarred from the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, and 
that none ought to be received and admitted thereunto, but such who do not only know 
and make profession of the Gospel, but walk suitable thereunto. The Apostle Paul in 
the 1 Cor. 1 1.28, appoints that a man must first examine himself, and so eat. And he 
also saith, That he who comes to that Sacrament, must be one who discerns the Lord's 

Body; otherwise, that he eats and drinks damnation to himself; and he further adds, 
That this must be done in remembrance of JESUS CHRIST, to shew forth his death 
till he come again; and therefore such as by reason of their ignorance cannot examine 
themselves, nor discern the Lord's Body, nor knows not what it is to shew forth the 
Lord's death, ought not to come. This same duty of examination, discerning the Lord's 
Body, which the Apostle calls for, doth also debar scandalous persons, and admit of 
none but such who walk orderly according to the Gospel, because the examination 
here required, must be according to the nature of the Ordinance of the Lord's Supper, 
to wit, whether they be worthy or not, that is, whether they have repentance or not; 
For he that comes without it, is unclean, and so pollutes the Ordinance; as also 
whether he hath faith or not, without which, there can be no discerning of the Lord's 
Body, nor shewing forth his death; and whether they have love or no, without which, 
there can be no Communion with CHRIST and his Members in that Ordinance. The 
Confession of Faith of the Kirk of Scotland, [Chapter 23] Entitled, To whom 
Sacraments appertain, speaks thus: "But the Supper of the Lord (we confess) to 
appertain to such only as be of the household of Faith, and can try and examine 
themselves, as well in their faith as in their duty to their neighbour;" but if such 
persons ought {28} not to come, and if the Sacraments do not appertain to them, there 
can be no question, but if they presume to come, they ought to be debarred, it being a 
trust committed to the Officers of the Kirk, both in the Old and New Testament, to 
keep the charge of the holy things, and to take heed that his Ordinances be not 
polluted and profaned, and to separate the precious from the vile. Levit. 10.10, That ye 
may put a difference betwixt the holy and unholy, betwixt the clean and unclean. 2 
Chron. 23.19, And he set the porters at the gates of the house of the Lord, that none 
who was unclean, in any thing, should enter in. Ezek. 22.26,They have put no 
difference betwixt the holy and profane, neither have they shewed difference betwixt 
the clean and the unclean. Ezek. 44.7, In that ye have brought into my sanctuary 
strangers uncircumcised in heart, and uncircumcised in flesh, to be in my sanctuary to 
pollute it, even my house, when ye offer my bread, the fat and the blood, and they have 
broken my Covenant, because of all your abominations, and ye have not kept the 
charge of my holy things, but ye have set keepers of my charge in my sanctuary for 
yourselves. Matt. 7.6, Give not that which is holy unto dogs, neither cast ye your 
pearls before swine, lest they trample them under their feet, and turn again and rend 
you. 1 Cor. 5.13, But them that are without God judgeth; therefore put away from 
amongst yourselves that wicked person. Titus 3.10, A man that is an heretic, after the 
first and second admonition, reject. Rev. 2.10, Nevertheless I have a few things 
against thee, because thou sufferest that woman Jezebel, which calleth herself a 
prophetess, to teach & seduce my servants to commit fornication, and to eat things 
sacrificed to idols. Jer. 15.19, If thou take forth the precious from the vile, thou shalt 
be as my mouth: let them return unto thee, but return not thou unto them. The 
Direction for the Publick Worship of God throughout the three Kingdoms, in the Head 

concerning the Celebration of the Lord's Supper, asserts, that the ignorant & 
scandalous are not to receive the Sacrament. And the Large Catechism asserts, That 
such as are found to be ignorant & scandalous, notwithstanding their profession of 
faith and desire to come to the Lord's Supper, may & ought to be kept from that 
Sacrament, by the power which Christ hath left in his Kirk, until they receive 
instruction, and manifest their reformation: And the Confession of Faith 
condescended on by the Assembly of Divines, and approven by the Kirk of Scotland, 
in the Chapter {29} of the Lord's Supper, saith, That all scandalous and ignorant 
persons, as they are unfit to enjoy Communion with CHRIST, so are they unworthy of 
the Lord's Table, and so cannot without great sin against CHRIST (whilst they remain 
such) partake of the holy Mysteries, or be admitted thereto. And for proof thereof, 
citeth these Scriptures, 1 Cor. 11.27-29, Wherefore whosoever shall eat this bread, 
and drink this cup of the Lord unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the 
Lord: But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of that bread, and drink of 
that cup: For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh damnation 
to himself, not discerning the Lord's body. 2 Cor. 5.14-16, For the love of Christ 
constraineth us, because we thus judge, That if one died for all, then were all dead; 
and that he died for all, that they which live, should not henceforth live to themselves, 
but to him that died for them, and rose again. Wherefore henceforth know we no man 
after the flesh; yea, though we have known Christ after the flesh, yet we henceforth 
know him no more. 1 Cor. 5.6,7 ', Know ye not, that a little leaven leaveneth the whole 
lump? Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are 
unleavened. For even Christ our passover is sacrificed for us. Verse 13, But them that 
are without, God judgeth: Therefore put away from among yourselves that wicked 
person. 2 Thess. 3.6,14,15, Now we command you, brethren, in the Name of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, That ye withdraw yourselves from every brother that walketh disorderly, 
and not after the tradition which he received of us. And if any man obey not our word 
by this Epistle, note that man, and have no company with him, that he may be 
ashamed. Yet count him not as an enemy, but admonish him as a brother. Matt. 
7.6, Give not that which is holy unto dogs, neither cast ye your pearls before swine, 
lest they trample them under their feet, and turn again and rend you. 

As to the other, how the Rule of the Word, and Constitutions of this Kirk are kept in 
this particular, it needs not much be spoken, the transgression being so palpable & 
common that they who runs may read, these particular faults may be taken notice of in 
order to this point: (1.) To say nothing, that in some places, few or none at all are 
excluded for ignorance, but that persons being once come to such an age, are 
admitted, and being once admitted, are never again excluded: There is in many 
Congregations little or no care to {30} examine, or take any notice of the knowledge 
of all persons indifferently, something being done in reference to servants, and these 
of the poorer sort, but masters of families and those of the richer sort for the most part 

neglected, taking it for granted (as it were) that they have knowledge, when indeed 
many of them are grossly ignorant, and ought because of their ignorance to be 
debarred. (2.) That the bare repeating of the Lord's Prayer, the Belief, or ten 
Commandments, or answering a Question or two of the Catechism by rot[e]-rime (as 
we say) when nothing of the meaning is understood, is by many taken for knowledge 
sufficient. (3.) There is not sufficient care to take notice of all scandals and scandalous 
persons, in which respect there is a twofold gross neglect: [1.] That the scandal of 
omission of Duty is not taken notice of, as well as the scandal of commission of sin, 
notwithstanding that the Acts and Constitutions of the Kirk make express provision 
for the one aswell as for the other, as may be seen in their Acts against these who 
absent themselves on the Lord's day from the Publick Worship of God, and against 
masters of families who neglect to pray in their family, and others of that nature. [2.] 
The many scandals of commission are also neglected, it being a custom in many 
Congregations to take notice only of Fornicators and Adulterers, and workers on the 
Lord's day, and such as these; but do neglect Tipplers, Drunkards, Swearers, Liars, 
Deceivers of their Neighbors, Fighters, Oppressors, Extortioners, Covetous persons, 
and many others who walk contrary to the Gospel; whereas it is expressly provided by 
the Discipline of this Kirk, in the year 1587, that if the Eldership perceive any thing in 
the Congregation either evil in the example, or scandalous in manners, and not 
beseeming their profession, whatsoever it be that may spot the Christian 
Congregation, yea rather whatsoever is not to edification, ought not to escape 
admonition or punishment, or higher degree of Kirk-Censure, as 2 Cor. 2.6, Sufficient 
to such a man is this punishment which was inflicted of many. (4.) That many such as 
have been judicially convicted of scandalous faults, are pressed and received into a 
publick profession of Repentance, when as indeed there is no real evidences of 
Repentance, yet by a profession thereof are put in a capacity to come to the Lord's 
Table: By these ways it comes to pass that many ignorant and scandalous persons are 
admitted who ought to be excluded; which certainly is a fearful sin, as may appear in 
these and many other respects: {31 } [1.] It hinders many poor souls from searching 
after knowledge, and from departing from iniquity, and hardens them in their 
ignorance and lewdness. [2.] It causeth them to profane the precious blood of the 
Covenant, and to eat and drink damnation to themselves. [3.] It makes the ignorant 
and scandalous promiscuously partakers of the seals of the Covenant of Grace with 
the truly godly. [4.] It provokes the Lord to depart from his Ordinances, and forsake 
his Temple, because of such dishonour to his Name. [5.] It brings on the judgment of 
God on particular persons and the whole Land. [6.] Lastly, it grieves and stumbles the 
godly amongst ourselves, and exposes ourselves and the Ordinances of Christ therein, 
to contempt and reproach amongst others. 

The Fourth Consequent which is named to follow on the resting upon outward and 
bare forms, is the keeping in of many continually & openly profane in the fellowship 

of this Kirk, by which is meant the neglect of casting out such from the fellowship of 
the kirk by the sentence of excommunication; for certainly these who do willfully 
continue in their ignorance from year to year, slighting the means of knowledge, and 
refusing to be instructed, or to learn the way of the Lord: And these who do continue 
in an open course of profanity, making a profession of repentance, and still persisting 
in their wicked way after sufficient pains taken on them, and their slighting other 
inferior Kirk Censures, ought to be casten out as dry and withered, corrupt and rotten 
branches, and not to be looked as Members of the Kirk of GOD. Num. 15.30, But the 
soul that doth ought presumptuously, whether he be born in the Land, or a stranger; 
the same reproacheth the Lord, and that soul shall be cut off from amongst his 
People. Psalm 50.16,17, But to the wicked God saith, What hast thou to do to declare 
my Statutes, or that thou shouldest take my Covenant in thy mouth, seeing thou hatest 
instruction and casteth my Words behind thee? Matt. 18.18, Verily I say unto you, 
Whatsoever you shall bind on Earth, shall be bound in Heaven. And therefore it is 
provided in the old Acts of the Assembly of this Kirk, that who will stubbornly remain 
ignorant in the principal points of Salvation, shall be Excommunicated: And that 
every Master of Family shall be commanded, either to instruct his Children and 
Servants, or cause them be instructed; and if they will not, the Kirk shall proceed 
against them. The General Assembly at Edinburgh in the year 1648, in the Overtures 
for the remedy {32} of Grievances and common sins of the Land, provided, That 
persons often guilty of gross scandals, be Excommunicated more summarily than 
ordinary Process, except there be more than ordinary signs & an eminent measure of 
repentance, made known to the Sessions and Presbytery. Besides these four, the 
Article also mentions many other sad and fearful consequents unto the profaning of all 
the Ordinances of God, and rendering them bare, barren and fruitless to us. And there 
is no question, but that formality in profession, and resting upon, and idolizing 
outward and bare forms, brings out many sad consequents besides these; such as the 
slighting by many, and mocking by some, the work of the Spirit, not seeking after 
communion and fellowship with God in Ordinances, not studying to know, and be 
humbled for the iniquity of our Holy things, not seeing a need, and employing of 
JESUS CHRIST for strength, and acceptance in all our performances; and turning the 
living God to a dumb Idol: and many others that are mentioned and spoken to, in that 
Paper published by the Commission, concerning the contempt of the Gospel. 

The Fourth Article. 

The fourth Article hath two parts; the first whereof relates to the neglect of Family- 
worship: which though it be a grievous sin, which provokes the Lord to pour out his 
wrath on a People, Jer. 10.25, Pour out thy fury on the Heathen that know thee not, 

and on the families that call not on thy Name. Yet there be many Masters of Families 
amongst all ranks of persons, Noblemen, Barons, Gentlemen, Burgesses, Commons, 
and even some Ministers who lie under the guilt; nay, there be but few in which the 
plurality will not be found to neglect, or never to have practiced the Duty: Instance is 
given in the Article of Great men, (Nobles, Barons, Gentlemen and Burgesses of 
special note) because very few are to be found amongst these who make conscience to 
call on the Lord's Name in their Families, some of them turning over the Duty wholly 
on a Chaplain, or some other person in the Family; and others of them having no such 
Duty in their Families performed at all, either by themselves, or by any other, they 
being either unable, or ashamed and unwilling to do it; whereas great and eminent 
persons have accounted it their duty and glory, and have followed it with much 
conscience and care, as may be instanced in Abraham, Gen. 18.19, For I know him, 
that he will command his children, {33 } and his household after him, and they shall 
keep the way of the Lord, to do justice and judgment, that the Lord may bring 
on Abraham that which he hath spoken of. And in Joshua, 24.15, And if it seem evil 
unto you to serve theLORD, choose you this day whom ye will serve, whether the gods 
that your fathers served who were on the other side of the flood, or the gods of 
the Amorites in whose Land ye dwell: but as for me, and my house we will serve 
the LORD. And in David, 2 Sam. 6.20, Then David returned to bless his household. 
This woeful neglect of so necessary and profitable a duty, especially in the Families of 
great Ones, usually attended with the neglect of catechising and instructing of 
Children and Servants, in the way of the Lord, and pressing and exercising them unto 
Prayer and other religious Duties, as it is a great sin before God, the height whereof is 
increased by their continuing therein, after solemn publick confession thereof, and 
engaging to the contrary, in the year 1648, and is expressly to be seen in the solemn, 
publick confession of sins, and engagement to duties; so it is the cause of much 
ignorance of God, Atheism and looseness, profanity, disorder and discontent that is in 
Families: and not only proves a hindrance to the spreading of piety amongst others 
who walk after their example, but also stops the course of the Lord's blessings on 
themselves and on their Families, and brings down upon them many judgments and 
curses from the Lord. The other part of the Article relates to the loathing and hating of 
godliness, and the reproaching, reviling, oppressing and persecuting the godly: A sin, 
as it is great in itself, Gen. 21.9, And Sarah saw the son o/Hagar the Egyptian which 
she had born unto Abrahamraoc&mg. Gal. 4.28, Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are 
the children of promise: But as then he who was born after the flesh, persecuted him 
who was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. Psalm 14.6, Ye have shamed the 
counsel of the poor; because the Lord is his refuge. Isa. 8.18, Behold, I and the 
children whom the Lord hath given me, are for signs, and for wonders in Israel, from 
the Lord of Hosts who dwelleth in Mount Sion. Acts 9.4, And he fell to the earth, and 
heard a voice saying to him, Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou mel And draws down a 
recompence of tribulation from the Lord. 2 Thess. 1.6, Seeing it is a righteous thing 

with the Lord to recompence tribulation to them which trouble you: so it seems to be a 
monstrous sin amongst a People, making profession of Reformation, and who are 
{ 34 } so often covenanted to God in so solemn a way, and yet hath it prevailed and 
abounded exceedingly this year bygone, in Court, in Country, in Cities, in 
Judicatories, in the Army, and every where throughout the Land; A man was made an 
offender for a word, and he that departed from iniquity, made himself a prey . It was 
quarrel enough, not to have run with others to the same excess of riot: They who 
would not be disaffected and dissolute, behooved to be esteemed enemies to their 
Country: they who studied to make conscience of holy Duties, and keep their 
integrity, were slandered as Sectaries, and compilers with Sectaries, and were not only 
exposed to the scourge of tongues, but also to the violence and oppression of 
malignant, graceless and profane men: Neither were Magistrates and Ministers free of 
this sin, but even sundry of these who ought to have protected, encouraged and 
countenanced the godly, were as pricks in their eyes, and thorns in their sides, not 
only by withdrawing their countenance from them, giving way to others, to revile, 
oppress and persecute them, but by employing their own gifts and power in 
Judicatories, and Pulpits, and other- ways, for keeping them down, and making them 
hateful and odious to others amongst whom they live. And whilest we are speaking of 
these things, We cannot but mention the great prejudice and enmity which many 
Ministers had against the exercises of godliness and duties of mutual edification, 
together with the great blot brought upon piety, and the great blow given to the 
exercise of godliness by the Act of the Assembly at Aberdeen, not repented of by the 
Kirk of Scotland, nor repealed to this day: and the great neglect of the duties of 
mutual edification amongst the Lord's Ministers and People, after there was allowance 
given for the same by the following Assemblies, and the suffering of many giftless 
and unprofitable Ministers not gifted of God to edify his People, to continue in the 
Ministry; whereby it comes to pass that many gracious People were necessitated either 
to want edification in the Publick Ordinances, or to fall under the censure of such Acts 
made against such as did usually withdraw from the Ordinances and Ministry of their 
own Parish Churches. This sin of hating and bearing down the power of godliness, 
and persecuting the godly, was accompanied with another, which is mentioned also in 
the Article, to wit, The countenancing and employing the ungodly and profane, a thing 
that the godly man's soul abhorred, Psalm 26.1-4, {35 } Judge me, O Lord, for I have 
walked in mine integrity, I have trusted also in the Lord, therefore I shall not slide. 
Examine me, O Lord, and prove me, try my heart and my reins; For thy loving 
kindness is before mine eyes, and I have walked in thy truth. I have not sat with vain 
persons, neither will I go with dissemblers, &c. And so throughout the 
Psalm. Psalm 101.4,5, Afroward heart shall depart from me: I will not know a wicked 
person. Whoso privily slandereth his neighbour, him will I cut off: Him that hath a 
proud heart, and an high look will I not suffer. Psalm 139.21-23, Do not I hate them, 
O Lord, that hate thee? And am not I grieved with these that rise up against thee? I 

hate them with perfect hatred: I count them mine enemies. Search me, O Lord, and 
know my heart: try me, and know my thoughts. And yet, hath it not gotten great 
footing amongst us, and made wicked men get up the head, and wickedness to grow 
and abound everywhere? The wicked walk on every side, when the vilest men are 
exalted, Psalm 12, last verse. 

5. Article. 

THE fifth Article speaks of Covetousness and Oppression, the one as the root, the 
other, as the fruit and effect thereof. We need not to insist to shew what a sin the love 
of the World and Covetousness is, the Scriptures hold it forth as Idolatry, Col. 
3.5, Mortify therefore your members which are on the earth, fornication, uncleanness, 
inordinate affection, evil concupiscence, and covetousness which is Idolatry, as the 
root of all evil. 177m. 6.10, For the love of money is the root of all evil, which while 
some men have coveted after, they have erred from the faith, and pierced themselves 
through with many sorrows: As that which is inconsistent with the love of God, 
1 John 2.15, Love not the World, neither the things that are in the world. If any man 
love the World, the love of the Father is not in him. As that which makes the Lord 
wroth with men: Isa. 57.17, For the iniquity of his covetousness was I wroth, and 
smote him: I hid my self and was wroth, and he went on frowardly in the way of his 
heart. And to abhor them, Psalm 10.3, The wicked boasteth of his heart's desire, and 
blesseth the covetous whom the Lord abhor reth. As that which brings the curse of 
God on them and on their families, Hab. 2.9-1 1, Woe to him that coveteth an evil 
covetousness to his house, that he may set his {36} nest on high, that he may be 
delivered from the power of evil. Thou hast consulted shame to thine house, by cutting 
off many people, and hast sinned against thy soul. For the stones shall cry out of the 
wall, and the beam out of the timber shall answer it. And though it have in it all these 
and many other mischiefs and evils, yet hath it taken hold on, and doth cleave closely 
to many of all ranks in the Land in their carriage and actings: Do not the Body of the 
People spend their time in seeking after the things of a present world; and according 
as they prosper, or are crossed in these things, accordingly do they think themselves 
happy or miserable. And there be Ministers not a few, that as they entered, so do they 
follow the work of the Ministry for the things of a present world, and are more for 
caring for these things, than for the souls committed to their charge, and more eager in 
pursuing an increase and augmentation in these things, than in pursuing the things that 
concern the beating down of Satan's Kingdom, and the promoving of the Kingdom of 
the Lord JESUS CHRIST. And hence also it is as from a main cause that Ministers 
not a few, prove unfaithful in their duty, and unsuitable in a day of temptation, rather 
choosing to forbear to reprove and censure the faults of these who may bring 

prejudice to them in things worldly, rather than to offend them, and rather choosing to 
become neutral and indifferent, or comply with evil courses, than to hazard the loss of 
their stipends, but especially the sad and woeful fruit of this woeful evil appears in 
Masters to their servants, Landlords to their Tenents, Magistrates and Rulers to these 
over whom they bear rule, Judges to these who come before them, Advocates and 
Procurators to their Clients; Clerks, Commissars and Collectors to these with whom 
they have to do; Officers and Soldiers in the Country where they bear charge, yea and 
amongst the Commons themselves, where they have any power one over another; The 
Lord hath forbidden to oppress an hired servant, and hath commanded at his day to 
give him his hire: Deut. 24.14,15, Thou shalt not oppress an hired servant that is poor 
and needy, whether he be of thy brethren, or of thy strangers that are in the land 
within thy gates, at his day thou shalt give him his hire, neither shall the sun go down 
upon it: for he is poor and needy, and setteth his heart upon it, lest he cry unto the 
Lord against thee, and it be sin unto thee. Yet behold, the hire of the labourer is by 
many Masters kept back violently & fraudulently, and this crieth {37} unto Heaven, 
and is entered into the ears of the Lord of hostsjames 5.4, Behold, the hire of the 
labourer which have reaped down your fields, which is of you kept back by fraud, 
crieth; and the cries of them which have reaped, have entered into the ears of the 
Lord of sabbath. The oppression of Landlords to their Tenents, are so many and so 
exorbitant, that they cannot easily be reckoned, the Lands for the most part set by 
them at a dearer rate than the Tenents can pay the Duty, and live in any tolerable 
condition themselves; and therefore are they forced with their wives and children to 
drudge continually in the earth from morning till evening; by which it comes to pass, 
that their lives is but a kind of lasting bondage and slavery, and that they have neither 
time nor encouragement for serving and seeking GOD themselves in their Families, or 
for breeding their children in knowledge, virtue and piety. Secondly, Beside the Rent 
of the Land condescended on, they also lay on them many burdens and taxations in an 
arbitrary way by their Bailiffs and Courts, and otherways at their pleasure, such as 
services of all sorts beyond paction and agreement, and quarterings; and beside the 
putting out of the Foot, and the burden thereof, sometime the burden of putting out the 
Horse, and the bearing of a great part, or the whole Monthly Maintenance and Cess. 
Thirdly, The giving of short Leases of Lands, and removing them therefrom, and 
taking away what they have when they grow poor, and are not able to pay, or else if 
they thrive, by heightening and augmenting their Farms and Rent, by which means it 
hath in the righteous judgment of GOD, occasioned that Tenents in many places prove 
undutiful to their Masters, and deny to them these things which in conscience and 
reason they are obliged to perform. And for the Rulers, albeit we be far from joining 
issue with these who from disaffection to the Work of GOD and the Instruments 
thereof, did traduce and speak evil of those whom GOD set over us in their charge, 
and even in the imposing of the most necessary burdens, and in the most moderate and 
equal way, yet we cannot but acknowledge and bemoan the great reproach that hath 

been brought on the chief Judicatories of the Land, and on the Work of GOD, by the 
selfishness and particularity of some persons of note therein, who not only contrary to 
the practice of good Nehemiah, who would not eat the bread of the Governour, took 
large allowance for their attendance on Pub lick Affairs: and notwithstanding that they 
had sufficient estates of {38} their own, but also abused their power and authority for 
exacting and employing sums of Money for themselves, and for their friends and 
followers, while in the mean time small regard was had to the condition of these from 
whom these sums were exacted, or to the equal supplying of the condition of others, 
to whom as much and possibly more in desert and justice was due, as to these to 
whom those Moneys were given. We shall not insist on the bribery that hath been 
amongst Judges, the cunning, cozenage, and exorbitant pilferings and taking that hath 
been amongst Advocates, Procurators, Commissars, Clerks and Collectors: many of 
them have made haste to be rich, and have by the Bench, by the Purse, by the tongue 
and by the Pen, heaped up much treasure, and made conquest of Lands and Estates, 
but with an evil conscience, because it hath been the gain of bribery and injustice and 
lying and deceit, violence and oppression; but amongst no sort of persons hath these 
sins of covetousness and oppression more appeared and prevailed than amongst many 
of the chief Officers and Soldiers in our Armies, insomuch that many of these who 
were raised for the Land's protection and defence, have been their intolerable burden 
and plague, and have by their most exorbitant, violent, tyrannical and insatiable 
exactions, made the lives of the Inhabitants bitter, and a burden to them: What 
interverting of Levies, what false Musters, what exorbitant exactions above the Law 
for men and horse and Arms; what Quarterings and covetous subtle oppressing 
devices of many sorts for getting of Money have been amongst Officers, and what 
plundering of Goods, destroying of Corns, taking and robbing of Moneys, railing 
upon, and beating and wounding the poor people: what excessive eating and drinking, 
and unplacableness in their diet, not satisfying themselves with such fare as people 
could afford to them, but killing their Kine and Sheep, and whatever came in their 
way: and how many other things of that kind hath been amongst Soldiers, and what 
exorbitancies and oppressions, whereof the negligence and over-sight of some great 
ones and officers in our Armies, was not the least cause; for they not being able to 
shake their hands of dishonest gain themselves, did oftentimes wink at, nay sometimes 
obstruct the purging out, and punishing of others; Amongst other effects of 
Covetousness, instance is given in the close of the Article of the great Insolencies and 
oppression of many in our Armies in England and Ireland, and the {39} fearful 
perjuries of the Land in the matter of Valuation and Excise, both of which were 
dreadful and horrible provocations: The first of them as it was a grievous burden to 
our Brethren in England and Ireland, and did exceedingly stumble them at this Nation 
and the Work of GOD in their hands; so we make no question but it is one of the sins 
that GOD is pointing at now in a special manner in the rods wherewith he now 
chastiseth us. The other of them though little adverted to, or laid to heart, or 

acknowledged to this day, yet is a fearful guilt which many in the Land lie under: 
How many in the matter of Valuations, that Lands might be valued at a low rate, did 
swear falsely? And how many were there who were Instrumental to cause others to 
swear falsely? And some Judges for their own advantage and interest, did connive 
thereat: And many likewise did swear falsely in exciseable goods. Before we close 
what relates to this Article, we desire that these Scriptures may be considered, in 
reference to the sins mentioned there, as the fruits of the love of the World and 
Covetousness. Job 35.9, By reason of the multitude of oppressions they make the 
oppressed to cry, they cry out because of the arm of the mighty, but none saith, where 
is God? &c. Psalm 62.10, Trust not in oppression, become not vain in robbery: If 
riches increase, set not your hearts on them. Psalm 82.2, How long will ye judge 
unjustly, and accept the person of the wicked? Proverb. 14.31, He that oppresseth the 
poor, reproacheth his maker; but he that honoureth him, hath mercy on the poor. 
Proverb. 15.27, He that is greedy of gain, he troubleth his own house; but he who 
hateth gifts, shall live. Proverb. 22.\6,He that oppresseth the poor, to increase his 
riches, and he that giveth to the rich, shall surely come to want. Proverb. 28.3, A poor 
man that oppresseth the poor, is like a sweeping rain that leaveth no food. Verse 
8, He who by usury and unjust gain increaseth his substance, he shall gather it for 
him that shall pity the poor. Verse 20, A faithful man shall abound with blessings; but 
he who maketh haste to be rich, shall not be innocent. Eccles. 7.7, Surely oppression 
maketh a wise man made, and a gift destroy eth the heart. Isa. 1.21-24, How is the 
faithful city become an harlot? It was full of judgment, and righteousness lodged in it; 
but now murderers: Thy silver is become dross, thy wine mixed with water. Thy 
princes are rebellious, and companions of thieves: every one loveth gifts, and 
follow eth after rewards: they {40} judge not the fatherless, neither doth the cause of 
the widow come unto them. Therefore saith the Lord, the Lord of hosts, the mighty one 
of Israel, Ah, I will ease me of mine adversaries, and avenge me of mine enemies. Isa. 
3.12-15, As for my people, children are their oppressors, and women rule over them. 
O my people, they which lead thee, cause thee to err, and destroy the way of thy paths. 
The Lord standeth up to plead, and standeth to judge the people. The Lord will enter 
into judgment with the ancients of his people, and the Princes thereof: For ye have 
eaten up the vineyard, the spoil of the poor is in your houses. What mean ye that ye 
beat my people to pieces, and grind the faces of the poor, saith the Lord God of hosts. 
Isa. 5.7, And he looked for judgment, but behold oppression; and for righteousness, 
but behold a cry. Verse 9, Of a truth, saith the Lord of Hosts, many houses shall be 
desolate, even great and fair without Inhabitant. Verse 23, Which justify the wicked 
for reward, & take away the righteousness of the righteous from him. Isa. 10.1,3, Woe 
unto them that decree unrighteous decrees, and that write grievousness which they 
have prescribed: To turn aside the needy from judgment, and to take away the right 
from the poor of my People, that widows may be their prey, and that they may rob the 
fatherless. And what will ye do in the day of visitation, and in the desolation which 

shall come from far? To whom will ye flee for help? and where will you leave your 
glory? Without me they shall bow down under the prisoners, and they shall fall under 
the slain: for all this his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still. 
Isa. 33.15, He that despiseth the gain of oppression, that shaketh his hands from 
holding of bribes, that stoppeth his ears from hearing of blood, and shutteth his eyes 
from seeing evil; He shall dwell on high: his place of defence shall be the munition of 
rocks. Jer. 6.6,7, For thus hath the Lord of Hosts said, Hew ye down trees, and cast a 
mount against Jerusalem: this is the City to be visited: she is wholly oppression in the 
midst of her. As a fountain casteth out her waters, so she casteth out her wickedness: 
Violence and spoil is heard in her: before me continually is grief and wounds. Jer. 
5.26-29, For amongst my People are found wicked men, they lay wait, as he that 
setteth snares; they set a trap, they catch men. As a cage is full of birds, so are their 
houses full of deceit: therefore are they become great, and waxen rich. They are 
waxen fat, they shine; yea, they overpass the deeds of the wicked: {41 } they judge not 
the cause of the fatherless, yet they prosper; and the right of the needy do they not 
judge. Shall I not visit for these things, saith the Lord? shall not my soul be avenged 
on such a Nation as this? Jer. 22.13-17, Woe to him that buildeth his house by 
unrighteousness, and his chambers by wrong: that useth his neighbour 's service 
without wages, and gives him not for his work; That saith, I will build me a wide 
house, and large chambers, and cutteth him out windows, and it is ceiled with cedar, 
and painted with vermilion. Shalt thou reign because thou closest thyself in cedar? did 
not thy father eat and drink, and do judgment and justice, and then it was well with 
him? He judged the cause of the poor and needy, then it was well with him: was not 
this to know me, saith the Lord? But thine eyes and thine heart are not but for thy 
covetousness, and for to shed innocent blood, and for oppression, and for violence to 
do it. Ezek. 22.13, Behold therefore I have smitten mine hand at thy dishonest gain 
which thou hast made and at the blood which hath been in the midst of thee. Verse 
29, The People of the Land have used oppression, and exercised robbery, and have 
vexed the poor and needy: yea, they have oppressed the stranger wrongfully. Hos. 
7.1, When I would have healed Israel, then the iniquity o/Ephraim was discovered, 
and the wickedness of Samaria: for they commit falsehood, and the thief cometh in, 
and the troops of robbers spoil without. Amos 3.10-1 1, For they know not to do right, 
saith the Lord, who store up robbery and violence in their palaces. Therefore thus 
saith the Lord God; An adversary there shall be, even round about the Land, and he 
shall bring down thy strength from thee, and thy palaces shall be spoiled. Verse 
15, And I will smite the winter house with the summer house, and the houses of Ivory 
shall perish, and the great houses shall have an end, saith the Lord. Micah 3.11- 
12, The Heads thereof judge for reward, and the Priests thereof, teach for hire, and 
the Prophets thereof divine for money; yet will they lean on the Lord and say, Is not 
the Lord amongst us? none evil can come upon us. Therefore shall Sion for their 
sokes be plowed like afield, and Jerusalem shall become heaps, and the Mountain of 

the House as the high places of the Forrest. Zeph. 3.1, Woe to her that is filthy and 
polluted, to the oppressing City. Verse 3, Her Princes within her are roaring Lions, 
her Judges are ravenous [evening] Wolves, they gnaw not the bones till the morrow. 
Verse 8, Therefore wait ye upon me, saith {42} the Lord, till I rise up to the prey: my 
determination is to gather the Nations, that I may assemble the kingdoms, that I may 
pour out on them mine indignation, even all my fierce anger: for all the Earth shall be 
devoured with the fire of my jealousy. Zeph. 1.9, In the same day will I punish all 
them who leap on the threshold, who fill their masters' houses with violence and 
deceit. Exod. 22.21-24, Ye shall neither vex a stranger, nor oppress him: for ye were 
strangers in the Land o/Egypt. Thou shalt not afflict any widow, or fatherless child; if 
thou afflict them in any ways, and they cry at all unto me, I will surely hear their cry, 
and my wrath shall wax hot; I will kill you with the sword, and your wives shall be 
widows, and your children fatherless . 

The Sixth Article. 

The sixth Article relates to the abusing and prostituting the Publick Faith of the 
Kingdom, in the way of borrowing of Monies and otherwise: which no question is not 
one of the least provoking Publick sins in the Land. As private men ought so far to 
have their faith and credit in estimation, for the love of righteousness and truth, as not 
to engage the same but when they do sincerely intend, and really endeavour to 
perform what they promise: so much more ought publick persons, and the Judicatories 
of a Land have such regard to the Publick Faith of a Nation, as not to engage the same 
but when there be some real purposes, and honest endeavours to fulfill it: Because the 
prostituting and breach of Publick-Faith, as it is an high provocation before God, so it 
is a great deal more pernicious, reproachful, slanderous, and injurious, and of a worse 
example amongst men, especially when it becomes common and is used as a state 
engine, to draw in men's property from them, under a vail and shadow of 
righteousness, and is attended with a kind of constraint upon men, to take the Publick 
Faith for security, as it was in this Land. Job 15.4, Yea, thou castest off fear, and 
restrainest prayer before God. Psalm 37.21, The wicked borroweth andpayeth not 
again: but the righteous sheweth mercy and giveth. Isa. 59.12-14, For our 
transgressions are multiplied before thee, and our sins testify against us: for our 
transgressions are with us, and as for our iniquities, we know them. In transgressing 
and lying against the Lord, and in departing away from our God; speaking oppression 
and revolt, conceiving and uttering from the heart words of falsehood. And judgment 
is turned away backward, {43 } and justice standeth afar off : for truth is fallen in the 
street, and equity cannot enter. Yea, truth faileth, and he that departeth from evil 

maketh himself a prey. And the Lord saw it, and it displeased him that there was no 

The Seventh Article. 

The seventh Article mentions two sins that many of this Land are guilty of, in their 
first taking of the National Covenant, and solemn League and Covenant, and renewing 
thereof. The first whereof is, The ignorance that was in many, or the want of the 
necessary knowledge of the things contained in the Covenants. The Lord requires of 
all those that take an oath, That they do it in judgment, Jer. 4.2, And thou shalt swear, 
The Lord liveth in truth, in righteousness, and in judgment, and the Nations shall 
bless themselves in him. That is, That they take it with such a measure of discretion, 
judgment and understanding, as is needful for men in their station, in order to the 
Duty which by their Oath they tie themselves to. But it is beyond question that many 
in the Land do swear these Covenants without the knowledge and understanding of 
the heads thereof, so far as was needful for them in their station; who when they were 
catechized on the particulars, do know little or nothing thereof: Which, no doubt is 
one cause why they have so little minded and followed, and do so little mind and 
follow the duties contained therein. Jer. 5.4, And I said, Surely these are poor, they 
are foolish; for they know not the way of the Lord, nor the judgment of their God. The 
other is, The taking of these Covenants without reality and sincerity, in order to the 
performance thereof: Which was to swear not in truth, as the Lord requireth. Jer. 
4.2, And thou shalt swear, The Lord liveth, &c. not falsely. Hos. 10.4, They have 
spoken words, swearing falsely, making a Covenant: thus judgment spring eth up as 
hemlock in the furrows of the field. And with an heart that was not right, & therefore 
have they not been steadfast in the Covenant. Psalm 78.36,37, Nevertheless, they did 
flatter him with their mouth, and did lie to him with their tongues: for their heart was 
not right with him, neither were they steadfast in his Covenant. The judgments 
therefore mentioned to have been, in some, example; in others, fear; and in not a few, 
principles of policy, for attaining their own ends. Other bad principles certainly there 
were in sundry persons, beside these, but these are mentioned as the most common, 
and which had sway {44} with most of these who were guilty either of ignorance, or 
of hypocrisy in the entering into these Covenants. Many did take the National 
Covenant, in example of others, it being counted praiseworthy and commendable, 
after such a defection as was then in the Land, to engage in such a duty, and to be 
reckoned amongst the repairers of the breach: Many did take the solemn League and 
Covenant, for fear; because the refusing to take it was attended both with 
Ecclesiastical and Civil Censures, and therefore did they rather choose to hazard on 
the OATH of GOD, than to run these hazards amongst Men; which doth not yet 

condemn the enjoining the taking of these Covenants upon a good and warrantable 
principle. It is lawful for the Judicatories of a Kirk and State to enjoin to men 
cohabitation with their wives; and to children, obedience to their Parents; to subjects, 
obedience to their Magistrates, and suchlike under such respective relations: Yet as 
these persons sin against God if they give obedience only from a principle of carnal 
fear; neither doth the influence that these relations have on them make the 
commanding of these things under these relations to be a sin, because they are in 
themselves duties which are commanded of God, the neglect whereof may in regard 
of scandal be censured by the Kirk, and in regard of the prejudice that redounds to the 
honour of God, and good of our neighbour, be punished by the civil Magistrate. In 
taking of both Covenants, though there were many whom a principle of the fear and 
love of God did move, yet there were not a few, whom after-discoveries have made 
manifest, who were acted thereto by carnal wisdom and policy, for attaining their own 
base and corrupt ends, such as riches, places of preferment, and livelihood, and ease; 
and hence mainly hath issued that sin which follows in the next Article. 

The eighth Article. 

The following of the Work of God, pursuing the ends of the Covenant not in a holy 
and spiritual way, setting the Lord always before our eyes, and acknowledging him in 
all our paths according to the direction given us of God, which hath the promise of the 
Blessing, Psalm 37.5, Commit thy way to the Lord, trust also in him, and he shall 
bring it to pass. Prov. 3.5,6, Trust in the Lord with all thine heart; and lean not to thy 
own understanding, in all thy ways acknowledge him and he shall direct thy paths. 
But in a carnal politick way abusing God's Interest for our own interest {45 } and ends, 
is a fearful transgression, howsoever it is often palliated with specious pretences, 
as Jehu his zeal against the house of Ahab 2 Kings 10.16, Come with me, and see my 
zeal for the LORD; so they made him ride in his chariot. Yet the Lord doth not suffer 
it to go unpunished, Hos. 1.4,5, And the LORD said unto him, Call his Name Jezreel, 
for yet a little while and I will avenge the blood of Jezreel on the house of Jehu, and 
will cause to cease the Kingdom of the house of Israel. And it shall come to pass in 
that day that I will break the bow of Israel in the valley of Jezreel. 

1 . Consequent. Two consequents of this carnal way are mentioned, the one is the 
walking in the way of our own hearts, more than in the Counsel of God: For when 
men's hearts are not single and straight in reference to the glory of God, they love not 
to walk according to the simplicity of the Word of God, but turns aside to their 
crooked ways, to choose such carnal midses [means] as seem most plausible to their 
carnal hearts, for compassing their corrupt ends: a sin that was confessed in the 

publick solemn Confession of sins, in the year 1648. And yet never have these 
crooked paths been more trodden in, and these counsels of flesh and blood been more 
hearkened to, than since that time; which is one of the causes, why the sword doth 
abide in our cities, and consume our branches and devours: For this the Prophet 
threatens against Israel, because of their own counsels. The other, Trusting more in 
the arm of flesh, than in the arm of the Lord; which hath been a constant and 
continued sin in this Nation these years past; in doting on multitudes, skill, and 
abilities of men, and numbers, and strength of horses; whence have issued the corrupt 
mixtures in our Armies and the employing of all ranks of persons, how malignant and 
profane soever: what wonder then though our Armies have not prospered? but have 
oftentimes met with a curse instead of a blessing. Jer. 17.5,6, Thus saith the Lord, 
Cursed be the man that trusteth in man, and maketh flesh his arm, and whose heart 
departeth from the Lord, for he shall be like the heath in the desert, and shall not see 
when good cometh, but shall inhabit the parched places in the wilderness in a salt 
Land, and not inhabited. From this same fountain hath proceeded needless alienation 
of mind, and estrangedness of heart, on the least difference in judgment amongst 
Brethren, often attended with passion and spleen. Which makes our affection rather to 
favour our own image than the Image of Christ in others: {46} and our zeal against 
malignancy and error did divers times break forth into bitterness and reproach against 
the persons that did turn aside, whereas it ought to have been accompanied with 
Christian meekness and compassion. 

The Ninth Article. 

The Ninth Article specifies one of the greatest and most comprehensive and 
provoking sins in this Land, viz. Backsliding and defection from the Covenants, and 
our solemn Vows and Engagements. For attaining a right impression thereof, We 
desire, That these and other scruples of that kind, may be seriously and impartially 
thought on and applied. Prov. 14.14, The backslider in heart shall be filled with his 
own ways: and a good man shall be satisfied from himself Jer. 3.20, Surely as a wife 
treacherously departeth from her husband, so have you dealt treacherously with me, 
O house of Israel, saith the Lord. Jer. 8.4-9, Moreover thou shalt say unto them, thus 
saith the Lord, shall they fall, and not arise? shall he turn away, and not return? Why 
then is this People of Jerusalem slidden back, by a perpetual backsliding? they hold 
fast deceit, they refuse to return. I hearkened and heard, but they spake not aright: no 
man repented him of his wickedness, saying, What have I done: everyone turneth to 
his course, as the horse rusheth into the battle. Yea, the stork in the Heavens knoweth 
her appointed times, and the turtle, and the crane, and the swallow observe the times 
of their coming: but my People know not this Judgment of the Lord. How do ye say, 

We are wise, and the Law of the Lord is with us: lo, certainly in vain made he it, the 
pen of the Scribe is in vain. The wise men are ashamed, they are dismayed and taken; 
lo, they have rejected the Word of the Lord, and what wisdom is in them? Hos. 
1 1.7, My People are bent to backsliding from me; though they called them to the most 
high, none at all would exalt him. Jer. 5.6, Wherefore a Lion out of the forest shall 
slay them, and a Wolf of the evening shall spoil them: a Leopard shall watch over 
their Cities: every one that goeth out thence, shall be torn in pieces: because their 
transgressions are many, and their backslidings are increased. Lev. 26.15-17, And if 
ye shall despise my Statutes, or if your soul abhor my judgments, so that ye will not do 
all my Commandments, but that ye break my Covenant: I also will do this unto you, I 
will even appoint over you terrour, consumption, and the burning-ague, that shall 
consume the eyes, and cause sorrow of heart: and ye shall sow {47} your seed in 
vain, for your enemies shall eat it. And I will set my face against you, and ye shall be 
slain before your enemies: and they that hate you, shall reign over you, and ye shall 
flee when none pursueth you. Verse 35, As long as it lieth desolate, it shall rest; 
because it did not rest in your sabbaths, when ye dwelt upon it. Deut. 29.23-25, And 
that the whole Land thereof is brimstone, and salt, and burning, that it is not sown, 
nor beareth, nor any grass groweth thereon, like the overthrow of Sodom & 
Gomorrah, Admah, & Zeboim, which the Lord overthrew in his anger & in his wrath: 
Even all Nations shall say, Wherefore hath the Lord done this to this Land? what 
meaneth the heat of this great anger? Then men shall say, Because they have forsaken 
the Covenant of the Lord God of their fathers, which he made with them when he 
brought them forth out of the Land of Egypt. 1 Kings 11.11, Wherefore the Lord said 
to Solomon, Forasmuch as this is done of thee, and thou hast not kept my Covenant 
and my Statutes, which I have commanded thee, I will surely rend the Kingdom from 
thee, and will give it to thy servant. 2 Kings 17.15, And they rejected his Statutes and 
his Covenant which he made with their fathers, and his Testimonies which he testified 
against them, and they followed vanity, and became vain, and went after the heathen 
that were round about them, concerning whom the Lord had charged them, that they 
should not do like them. Psalm 78.9-1 1, The children of Ephraim being armed and 
carrying Bows, turned back in the day of battle. They kept not the Covenant of God, 
and refused to walk in his Law: andforgat his works, and his wonders that he had 
shewed them. Verse 36, Nevertheless, they did flatter him with their mouths, and lied 
to him with their tongues, for their heart was not right with him, neither were they 
steadfast in his Covenant. Isa. 24.5,6, The earth also is defiled under the inhabitants 
thereof, because they have transgressed the Laws, changed the Ordinances, and 
broken the everlasting Covenant. Therefore hath the curse devoured the earth, and 
they that dwell therein are desolate: therefore the inhabitants of the earth are burned, 
and few men left. Psalm 44.17-20, All this is come upon us; yet have we not forgotten 
thee, neither have we dealt falsely in thy Covenant. Our heart is not turned back from 
thee; neither have our steps declined from thy way. Though thou hast sore broken us 

in the place of Dragons, and covered us with the shadow of death. If we have 
forgotten the Name of our God, or stretched our hands to a strange god: Shall not 
God search {48} this out? for he knoweth the secrets of our hearts. Psalm 50.16, But 
to the wicked, saith God, What hast thou to do to declare my Statutes, or that thou 
shouldest take my Covenant in thy mouth? Seeing thou hatest instruction, and castest 
my words behind thee. Jer. 1 1.9,10, And the Lord said to me, A conspiracy is found 
among the men ofJudah, and amongst the inhabitants of Jerusalem. They are turned 
back to the iniquities of their forefathers, which refused to hear my words; and they 
went after other gods to serve them: the house of Israel and the house ofJudah have 
broken my Covenant which I made with their fathers . Jer. 22.8,9, And many Nations 
shall pass by this City, and they shall say every man to his neighbor, Wherefore hath 
the Lord done this to this great City? Then they shall answer, Because they have 
forsaken the Covenant of the Lord their God, and worshipped other gods and served 
them. Ezek. 16.59, For thus saith the Lord God, I will even deal with thee as thou hast 
done, which hast despised the Oath, in breaking the Covenant. Hos. 6.7, But they like 
men have transgressed the Covenant, they have dealt treacherously against me. Hos. 
8.1, Set the Trumpet to thy mouth: he shall come as an Eagle against the house of the 
Lord: because they have transgressed against my Covenant, and trespassed against 
my Law. Hos. 10.4, They have spoken words, swearing falsely in making a Covenant: 
thus Judgment springeth up as Hemlock in the furrows of the field. Rev. 
2.5, Remember therefore from whence thou art fallen, and repent, and do the first 
works, or else I will come to thee quickly, and remove thy Candlestick out of his place, 
except thou repent. This sin is aggravated by several circumstances mentioned in the 
Article, which are clear in themselves, and need not to be insisted on: therefore 
passing these, we come to speak of the special Heads and Steps that are condescended 
on in the Paper. 

1. Step. The first is, declining from that purity of conversation, that integrity of heart, 
that zeal of God that seemed to be in many at their first entry to the Covenant, and a 
falling off into loose walking, self-interest and indifferency. About the time of the first 
renewing of the Covenant; there was an sensible change to the better in men's carriage 
and conversation; most of all these who joined in opposing the defection; not only 
reforming themselves from common and gross sins, such as drunkenness, 
uncleanness, swearing, profaning the LORD'S Day, slighting of the Ordinances, self- 
seeking, covetousness and oppression, &c. but giving themselves {49} to the Duties 
of Religion and Righteousness, such as sobriety, Edifying Discourse, Chaste 
behaviour, hallowing of the LORD'S Day, diligent seeking of the LORD in secret and 
in their Families, attending on the preaching of the Word as often as opportunity is 
offered, liberality, love, charity one towards another, a Publick spirit and zeal for 
GOD; but all these things are now decayed in many, and they are again grown as ill if 
not worse than before, which as it is an evidence of great unsoundness of heart, so 

hath it brought many sad reproaches on the Work of GOD in our hands, and hath 
proven a great stumbling block to many in the neighbour Land, to make them averse 
therefrom, and hath given them no small advantage to speak both against us and it, 
though these, who do reject and speak ill of any part of the precious truth of God be 
not to be justified in so doing, yet certainly they are much to be condemned who by 
their untender and loose walking minister occasion thereto: Woe to these by whom 
offences come. 

2. Step. The second Step is the sitting up of many Professors in the Land under the 
Gospel, and becoming formal and remiss, not entertaining tenderness and soberness of 
mind, a sin that relates especially to the Godly in the Land, not a few of which have 
much decayed in former tenderness, and zeal, and diligent seeking of God, and sober 
and exact walking, studying to root themselves in the solid knowledge and love of the 
truth, and invaluing and improving the Gospel & the means of grace unto a loathing 
and denying of themselves, and a growing into and loving and employing of the Lord 
Jesus Christ. By which, deadness of spirit hath seized on some, and laziness of spirit 
on others; whereby it hath come to pass, that they have been tempted to step out of the 
way, and some to turn aside to the left hand, to embrace Malignant courses, and some 
to the right hand to embrace errour, whose sin is so much the greater than the sin of 
others, by how much their knowledge and the LORD'S loving kindness to them hath 
been greater than to others; and this declining of Professors, and falling off from their 
first love, if it be not deeply mourned for, and if they do not timeously lament after the 
Lord, as it may prove a snare to many more than yet it hath done, so it is like to be 
amongst the chief causes that may provoke the Lord to remove his Candlestick from 
us, Rev. 2.4,5, Nevertheless I have somewhat against thee, because thou hast {50} left 
thy first love: Remember therefore from whence thou art fallen, and repent and do the 
first works, or else I will come to thee quickly and remove thy Candlestick out of his 
place, except thou repent. 

3. Step. The third is, the secret falling off of some, and open falling off of many to the 
opposite party, after their entering to the Covenant; especially the defection carried on 
by James Graham, and his party, and that of the year 1648, by the authors and 
abettors of the unlawful Engagement, which particulars are so well known, that we 
shall not need to stay upon them. Only we desire that it may be remembered, that as 
they were early begun and long in ripening, that of James Graham, having begun in 
the year 1639, and ripened till the year 1645, and that some of the chief Authors of the 
unlawful Engagement having begun in the year 1644, and ripened till the year 1648, 
and did take hold upon, and infect very many of all ranks throughout the Land, so 
have they been really and unfeignedly repented of by very few to this day: which we 
doubt not is one of the reasons why so many of these who had hand in these bloody 
and backsliding courses have fallen by the sword, and are gone into captivity. 

4. Step. The fourth Step, is, The neglecting and condemning the purging of 
Judicatories, and the Army, in the year 1649, and afterward, from scandalous and 
disaffected men, and of constituting the same of men of known integrity and affection 
to the Cause, and of a blameless and Christian conversation: That it was a duty so to 
have constituted and purged the Judicatories and Armies, ought in reason to be 
question by none: it being a duty holden forth in the Word of God, That the Rulers of 
thousands, Rulers of hundreds, Rulers of fifties, and Rulers of tens (amongst the 
People of God) should not only be able men, but such also as fear God, men of truth, 
hating covetousness, Exod. 18.21, Moreover, thou shalt provide out of all the People 
able men, such as fear God, men of truth, hating Covetousness; and place such over 
them to be Rulers of thousands, Rulers of hundreds, Rulers of fifties, and Rulers of 
tens. And let them judge the People at all seasons. Deut. 1.15-17, So I took the chief of 
your Tribes, wise men, and known, and made them heads over you, Captains over 
thousands, Captains over {51 } hundreds, Captains over fifties, and Captains over 
tens, and Officers among your Tribes. And I charged your Judges at that time, saying, 
Hear the causes between your brethren, and judge righteously betwixt every man and 
his brother, and the stranger that is with him. Ye shall not respect persons in 
Judgment, but you shall hear the small as well as the great; you shall not be afraid of 
the face of man, for the judgment is God's: 2 Sam. 23.3,4, The God of Israel said, The 
Rock of Israel spake to me: He that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of 
God; and he shall be as the light in the morning, when the Sun riseth, even a morning 
without clouds; as the tender grass springeth out of the earth by clear shining after 
rain. 2 Chr. 19.6-9, And he said to the Judges, Take heed what ye do, for ye judge not 
for man; but for the Lord, who is with you in the judgment; wherefore now, let the 
fear of the Lord be upon you; take heed and do it, for there is no iniquity with the 
Lord our God, nor respect of persons, nor taking of gifts. And he charged them, 
saying, Thus shall ye do in the fear of the Lord, faithfully, and with a perfect heart; 
and Deut. 23.9, When the host goeth forth against thine enemies then keep thee from 
every wicked thing. Therefore were they [that were] unclean by Leprosy, by an Issue, 
and by the Dead, to be put out of the Camp. Num. 5.2, Command the children of 
Israel, that they put out of the Camp every Leper, and every one that hath an Issue, 
and whosoever is defiled by the dead. Deut. 22.10,1 1, Thou shalt not plow with an Ox 
and an Ass together. Thou shalt not wear a garment of divers sorts, as of woolen and 
linen together; because the Lord their God did walk in the midst of the Camp of his 
People, to deliver them, and to give up his enemies before them; therefore was the 
Camp to be holy, that he might see no unclean thing in them, & turn away from 
them. Deut. 23.14, For the Lord thy God walketh in the midst of thy Camp, to deliver 
thee, and give up thine enemies before thee: therefore shall thy Camp be holy, that he 
may see no unclean thing in thee, and turn away from thee. 

And because this Nation had exceedingly neglected the purging of Judicatories and 
Armies, and constituting the same of persons rightly qualified, which was the cause of 
many evils of sin and punishment; therefore was this neglect publicly and solemnly 
confessed to GOD, and the contrary duty engaged unto, at the renewing {52} of the 
Covenant toward the end of the year 1648, as is to be seen in the solemn Pub lick 
Confession of sins, and engagement to duties. For rendering of the which effectual, 
the Commission of the General Assembly did present many Petitions, Remonstrances 
and Warnings from time to time to the Committee of Estates, and to the Parliament, 
who did make sundry Laws both for the purging of the Judicatories and Armies which 
then were, and for keeping them pure for the time to come, as is to be seen in their 
Registers and Acts, Anno 1649 and 1650. And accordingly somewhat was done in that 
great and necessary duty by themselves and others, to whom they did commit the 
trust, but notwithstanding of all these things, it did appear very soon after the 
Confessing of that sin, and engaging to that duty, that many did neither mind 
repentance of the one, or performance of the other. Therefore as the Commission of 
the General Assembly were necessitated to renew their desires in that particular very 
often, and from month to month, so were not these Laws and Committees having 
power to execute the same, established without some wrestling and difficulty: not a 
few labouring to obstruct and retard the same, and when it came to the execution, with 
what neglect and slowness, and partiality, did they proceed therein? And what 
impediments did they (who were not diligent) cast in the way of others who were 
more diligent and faithful, and zealous in following of the duty? By which it came to 
pass, that little could be gotten done in that matter, and what was done was not only 
loaded with imputations and reproaches, but also was for the most part made 
ineffectual: The persons appointed to be removed, being either kept still, or shortly 
thereafter being brought again to their own or some other place, or else as evil being 
put in their place. Nay, after the defeat at Dumbar, these duties came not only to be 
neglected, but what formerly had been gotten done therein, was looked and cried out 
upon, as the cause of the ruin of the Army; and therefore not only these who had been 
formerly purged, but all others how malignant and loose soever, were brought to the 
Judicatories and Army, and what had formerly been confessed a sin, was then 
followed and commended as a duty. 

5. Step. The fifth is, The authorizing of Commissioners to close a Treaty with the 
King, for the investing him with the Government, {53} upon his subscribing such 
demands as were sent to him, after he had given many clear evidences of his dis- 
affection and enmity to the Work and people of GOD, and was continuing in the 
same; and the admitting of him to the full exercise of his power, and Crowning him 
notwithstanding of new discoveries of his adhering to his former Principles and way, 
and of many warnings to the contrary. For the better understanding and more full and 
clear discovery of this sin, we would consider these things which are set down by the 

General Assembly of this Kirk, in their Declaration of the date July 17, 1649, to wit, 
that as Magistrates and their power are ordained of GOD, so are they in the exercise 
thereof, not to walk according to their own will, but according to the Law of equity 
and righteousness, as being the Ministers of GOD for the safety of his people, &c. 
Secondly, That there is a continual obligation and stipulation betwixt the King and the 
People, as both of them are tied to GOD, so each of them are tied each to other, for the 
performance of mutual and reciprocal duties, according to which it is statute and 
ordained in the 8th Act of the Parliament of King James the Sixth, That all Kings, 
Princes and Magistrates whatsomever, holding their place, which hereafter shall 
happen at any time to reign and bear rule over this Realm, at the time of their 
Coronation, the receipt of their Princely Authority, make their faithful Promise by 
Oath, in the presence of the Eternal GOD, That during the whole course of their lives, 
they shall serve the same Eternal GOD to the utmost of their power, according as he 
hath required in his Holy Word, contained in the Old and New Testament, and 
according to the same Word shall maintain the true Religion of JESUS CHRIST, the 
Preaching of his most holy Word, and due and right Administration of the Sacraments 
now received and preached within this Realm, and shall abolish and gainstand all false 
Religion contrary to the same, and shall rule the People of GOD committed to their 
charge, according to the will and command of GOD revealed in his Word, and 
according to the laudable Laws and Constitutions received within this Realm, &c. 
Thirdly, That in the League and Covenant that had been so solemnly and publicly 
sworn and renewed by this Kingdom, the duty of defending and preserving the King's 
Majesty's Person and Authority, is joined with, and subordinate to the duty of 
preserving {54} and defending the true Religion and Liberty of the Kingdoms. 
Fourthly, That an arbitrary Government and an illimited Power was the fountain of 
most, if not of all the corruptions both of Kirk and State: And that it was for restraint 
of this, and for their own just defence against tyranny and unjust violence (which 
ordinarily is the fruit and effect of such power) that the Lord's People did join in 
Covenant, and have been at the expenses of so much blood, travails and pains these 
years past. Fifthly, That the King being averse from the Work of Reformation, and the 
Instruments thereof, and compassed about with Malignant and dis-affected men whom 
he hearkens to as his most faithful counsellours, and looks upon as his most loyal and 
faithful Subjects, being admitted to the exercise of his power before satisfaction given, 
would by these counsels, endeavour an over-turning of these things which the Lord 
hath wrought amongst us, and labour to draw Publick Administrations concerning 
Religion and the Liberty of the Subject into the course and Channel, in which they did 
run under Prelacy, & before the Work of Reformation: Which we had the more cause 
to fear, because his Royal Father did often declare, That he conceived himself bound 
to employ all the power that God had put in his hands to the utmost, for these ends, 
and that he adhered to his Father's principles, and walked in his way, and had made a 
peace with the Irish Rebels, by which is granted to them the full liberty of Popery. 

From these Principles the General Assembly did then infer, That it would be the 
wisdom of every one who dwells in this Land, to take heed to such a temptation and 
snare, that they be not accessory to any such designs and endeavours of bringing or 
admitting the King to the exercise of his Power, without satisfaction given concerning 
the security of Religion, and Liberty of the Subjects, as they would not bring upon 
themselves, and on their Families, the guilt of all the detriment that would 
undoubtedly follow thereupon to Religion and the Covenant, and of all the miseries 
and calamities that it would bring on his Majesty's Person and Throne, and on these 
Kingdoms. Such a thing (say they would in all appearance be the under-minding and 
shaking off, if not the over-throwing and destroying of the Work of Reformation, and 
that therefore whosoever attempts the same, do oppose themselves to the Cause of 
GOD, and will at last dash against the rock {55} of the Lord's Power, which hath 
broken in pieces many high and lofty ones since the beginning of this Work in these 
Kingdoms. From all which it doth appear upon good grounds, that it was an high 
provocation, to admit the King to the exercise of his Power, or to entrust him with the 
Cause and People of GOD, whilst he was continuing in his former disaffection to, and 
enmity against the same; with which sin the Lord hath been so displeased, that he hath 
in a great measure verified the same things on the Land which are holden forth by the 
General Assembly, and which would be the consequents thereof. 

We know that it will be objected by many, That the King did desist from, and abandon 
that course of enmity against the Work and People of God, before the close of the 
Treaty, and that he did give satisfaction concerning the security of Religion, and 
Liberty of the Subjects, by condescending to, and subscribing these demands, which 
were sent to him from the Parliament of this Kingdom, and the Commission of the 
General Assembly. To which we reply, First, that these demands were deficient, at 
least not so plain and positive, and express in the main and necessary thing, to wit, a 
real abandoning of former malignant courses and principles, and a real and cordial 
cleaving to the Work and people of God, without which there could not be a real 
security; it was not a shadow of security for Religion and Liberty, or a paper and 
verbal security only, but a real security which we were bound before the Lord to have 
endeavoured and obtained before the close of a Treaty with the King, for entrusting 
him with the Government, and to authorize Commissioners to settle with him upon 
such paper- securities, and accordingly to entrust him, was but to mock God, and to 
deceive the World, and to betray and destroy ourselves, by giving up all the precious 
Interests of Religion and Liberty into the hands of one who was in a course of enmity 
to these. Secondly, it is certain, (if men will not deny clear and evident truths) that the 
King had not only (before the authorizing of these Commissioners to close a Treaty 
with him upon his condescending to these Demands) given evidence of his enmity to 
the Work and people of God, but also was continuing in the same, during the time of 
the Treaty, and that he had not abandoned these Principles and courses at the close of 

the Treaty; And when he did swear and subscribe {56} the National Covenant, and the 
Solemn League and Covenant; Nay, the whole tenour of his carriage, did then, and 
afterward convincingly enough (to intelligent men) demonstrate him to be the same he 
was before. We shall not need bring many instances, therefore passing over these 
things which he did, before this Kingdom began to treat with him, such as the 
Declaration emitted by him when he was Prince, against the Cause and People of God, 
and his Printed Declaration at Jersey, as King, against all who had been in opposition 
to his Father in these troubles: We shall mention only a few particulars that fell out 
thereafter, to wit, these: first, he did not only countenance and entertain the most 
Capital and known Enemies of this Kingdom, such as James Graham, and others, who 
had shed much of the blood thereof, but also did give Commission to the said James 
Graham, to make war upon, and invade the Inhabitants thereof, as Traitors and 
Rebels. Secondly, in the whole progress of the Treaty, as he did communicate and 
take counsel with known dis-affected and malignant men in all things relating to the 
same, and not moving a step, but according to their advice, so did he procrastinate and 
delay to grant what was desired, until all other means of help had failed, and his own 
estate and condition was now become desperate, and what he did grant, was not all at 
once, and cheerfully, as if it had been a duty, but by little and little, and by a kind of 
coaction and merchandise, as if it had been a bargain of buying and selling. Thirdly, 
after the Treaty was brought to some close, he did before his coming to Sea, receive 
the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper from one of the Prelatical Chaplains, and 
according to the Service-Book notwithstanding the Commissioners of the Kirk did 
represent the evil thereof to him, and did earnestly deal with him to the contrary. 
Fourthly, he brought to Sea, and into Scotland with him almost the whole Train of 
Malignant and dis-affected men, who had followed him in his former evil courses, and 
fled from the Justice of both Kingdoms, and these he did more familiarly & entirely 
converse with, than with others. Fifthly, he was near the coast of Scotland before he 
would condescend to the subscribing of these Demands which were sent from the 
Parliament, upon the report of the close of the Treaty, as it was first closed in Holland, 
and the Commissioners were so far out of hopes of obtaining their desire, that even 
when they were come { 57 } near the shore, they were preparing Papers of exoneration; 
and when in an instant on the suggestion of some Malignants, he did condescend to 
subscribe the Demands, and take the Covenant; it was with a reserve of a Declaration 
to be printed therewith, which he did not pass from until the Commissioners of the 
Church did refuse to admit thereof. Sixthly, Within a few days of his coming 
to Scotland, when removing Malignants from his Family and Court was earnestly 
pressed by the Commissioners both of Kirk and State, at Falkland, he shewed himself 
very averse from the same, and did not only at that place, but at all places and times 
afterwards countenance and entertain men of that stamp, who were in his Family and 
Court, and came to the same. Seventhly, He did for a long time refuse to subscribe the 
Declaration which was tendered to him, for the acknowledging of his own, and his 

Parents' guiltiness for the time past, and according to his duty for the time to come; 
and after that he had, with a great deal of reluctancy, subscribed the same, he did 
oftentimes express, That he did not think his Father guilty of blood, and that 
notwithstanding he had so declared, he had his own meaning thereof. Eighthly, As he 
did first by Letters authorize sundry of the Malignant party to rise in Arms without the 
knowledge of the Committee of Estates, and contrary to the standing Laws of this 
Kingdom; so did he himself within a short time thereafter, desert the Publick Councils 
of the Kingdom, and join with the Malignants. Ninthly, During the whole time of the 
Treaty, and after the close thereof, he had correspondence with all the Malignants of 
the three Nations, to sundry of which he gave Commissions. These Instances do 
clearly enough prove what was said concerning the King's continuing in a course of 
enmity to the Work and People of God, which made it a sin in us, whilst he was in 
that condition, to entrust him with the Interests of both: neither was our carriage here 
more faulty in the matter, than it was rash and precipitant in regard of the manner. The 
news of the late King's death, brought to Edinburgh on the Lord's day at night, the 
Parliament did the next day before twelve of the clock, proclaim this King with all 
publick solemnity, without setting any time apart to seek the Lord for Counsel and 
direction therein; which, as both Reason and Religion might have taught us, to have 
used more deliberation amongst ourselves, and {58} more supplication to God, before 
he (whose Father and himself had been engaged so much in opposition to the Work 
and People of God) had been proclaimed King, and within a short time thereafter, 
solemn Address was made to him for offering him the Crown and Kingdom upon 
some verbal and paper security, without any previous Address for informing his 
conscience, or taking notice whether he did adhere to his former principles and way; 
and when the Lord was pleased to render these Applications ineffectual, and to bring 
back the Commissioners to this Kingdom and Kirk, without any satisfaction to their 
desires; we did again no less precipitantly than before, rush on a second Address, 
which was at one and the same day concluded and proponed in Parliament, not only 
without any previous Consultation or Debate had there anent amongst these who had 
been tender and faithful to the Work of God from the beginning, but without their 
knowledge, and contrary to their expectation; and afterwards, in regard of the close 
and dispatch of Commissioners, which was so passionately and violently driven on, 
that many were impatient, even of the most necessary delays, and of the most 
reasonable contradiction in any thing that related thereto: and it is not to be past 
without observation, that whilst we were treading these slippery and sinful steps, the 
Lord suffered not us to want warning. We shall not insist on the sad apprehensions 
that were in the hearts of many of the godly in the Land in reference thereto: So albeit 
they durst not altogether deny duty to be in making Application to the King, yet did 
the sense of the Lord's controversy with him and his house, together with his walking 
in his former way, lie heavy on their spirits and made them rather fear a curse, than 
expect a blessing thereupon. Nor shall we speak of the passionate inclination, desires, 

and endeavours of the Malignant party, and of their rejoicing herein, and of their 
heightening of their hopes thereby. But we desire it may be remembered, That whilst 
the second Address was in preparing, not only did the Lord give us warning of 
presumptions, first of the King his authorizing of James Graham to invade this 
Kingdom, and of his encouraging him by Letters to go on in that Invasion, even whilst 
he was in terms of a Treaty with Us; but also by James Graham his actual invasion a 
little thereafter by the King's Commission, and by bringing to our hands the authentic 
Commission itself, and {59} sundry Letters under the King's own hand, testifying his 
adherence to his former principles, & his affection to that great Enemy of this Cause 
and Kingdom. And what were all these instances which we have formerly spoken of 
in the King's carriage, but warnings from the Lord to have taught us wisdom in this 
thing? We know that some may think it unsuitable for us to meddle in these things 
which seem to have been otherwise determined by the General Assembly of this Kirk, 
1650, and that others may wonder that that Assembly should have so determined. We 
shall not now stand to debate how far that Assembly did approve of these things 
which concern the Treaty with the King, anent the security of Religion: but the Lord 
having declared so much from Heaven against the whole Land, it concerns us and all 
others impartially to search into, and to discover the causes thereof, so far as he is 
pleased to convince and give light therein; and we do in charity, and not without 
ground, presume, That if all the passages of procedure of the King's carriage in the 
Treaty, and from the beginning in order to this Kingdom, and the enemies thereof, had 
been impartially and freely discovered and made known to the Assembly as they have 
been since, they had not gone the length which they went. 

6. Step. For understanding of the sixth Step, which relateth unto the rejecting the 
discovery of guiltiness and causes of the LORD'S contending with us; It will be 
needful to speak somewhat for clearing of the matter of fact in the instances which are 
given in the Article: The first instance is in the causes of humiliation, condescended 
on by the Commission of the General Assembly at Leith, and offered to the 
Committee of Estates, by whom they were rejected; the story whereof as to the matter 
of fact was thus: The next day after the English forces came in view of our Army, 
which was then entrenched betwixtLeith and Edinburgh: Some general persons in our 
Army (whether from any desire to approve themselves to the King, who the night 
before was come to Leith from Sterlin, or from any other principle, we know not) did 
draw forth a great many of the Horse to skirmish with the English, by whom they 
were with some loss, and much shame beaten back again to the trenches, which bred 
such a disheartening and astonishment in the whole body of the Army, that had the 
English then stormed the Trenches, they had belike {60} gained them, and routed our 
Army. Upon this occasion, the Commission of the General Assembly gave themselves 
to search after the causes of this stroke and spirit of confusion and astonishment from 
the LORD, and after some pains taken therein, found that there had been a malignant 

design for bringing in again the malignant party of a long time, hatching and carrying 
on by sundry in the Judicatories and in the Army, and that it was far promoted and 
advanced: And for the more conviction herein, they did condescend on several 
Instances and Particulars of moment and consequence: This they offered to the 
Committee of Estates as grounds of humiliation to be kept by them and the Army; but 
the Committee, as they did refuse to take with any such guiltiness, so did they refuse 
to join in any humiliation to be kept for the same. Upon the which the Commission 
did leave it before them with a Declaration, That they had exonered themselves, and 
with a desire to the Committee of Estates to do therein, as they would be answerable 
to GOD, who was contending for these things. The second is the causes of 
humiliation, condescended on at Sterlin immediately after the defeat at Dumbar. these 
causes which were first condescended on by the Presbytery with the Army, and 
afterwards approven by the Commission of the General Assembly did specify 
somewhat of the crooked courses which had been taken in carrying on the Treaty with 
the King, and of the obstructing the purging of the Army, and of the Judicatories, and 
of the King's Family, and of the not differencing of Instruments employed in Publick 
trust, and several other things relating to the carriage of these in Publick trust in 
Judicatories and Armies, which though real truths in themselves, and just matter of 
humiliation before GOD, yet were rejected and not so much as read or intimated by 
many Ministers in their Congregations, and were refused to be taken with, or 
acknowledged by sundry Statesmen and Officers of the Army, and others, who were 
guilty of them. The third Instance is the Remonstrance of the Gentlemen, Ministers 
and Forces in the West, which though it was a testimony given in reference to sin and 
Duty by a company of men who had been straight from the beginning in the Work of 
GOD, in the simplicity of their hearts, and did contain in it many sad truths, yet was 
not only rejected, but condemned by the plurality of the {61 } Committee of Estates, 
and Commission of the General Assembly, notwithstanding that many of the 
Members of both these Judicatories did dissent from, and protest against these voices, 
and as if it had not been enough, was again resumed by the Parliament and a most 
harsh censure put upon it, and all such as did not disclaim it before such a day, 
appointed to be proceeded against with Censures of an high nature; other testimonies 
of Presbyteries and Synods beside these are also mentioned, for divers such there was, 
as the Letters from the Presbyteries of Sterlin, Aberdeen, Glasgow, Pasley, and 
several other Presbyteries and Synods, which were written to the Commission as 
testimonies of their dis-satisfaction with the Publick Resolutions concerning the 
Leavy, and were rejected, and sundry of the authors thereof sharply rebuked: nay, 
some of them discharged to speak their Consciences, and confined in places far distant 
from their charge for doing thereof. In the close of this Article there is mention of the 
neglecting of means tending to peace, and the preventing the effusion of more blood, 
from pride and bitterness of spirit, against these who had invaded us. We know that 
before this Kingdom was invaded by these who hath now brought it low, there was a 

Letter written by the Parliament to the present power in England, and duplicates 
thereof to the General, Lieutenant General, and General Major of their Army, upon 
the 22nd of June, 1650, wherein they did shew that as in their Letter of the 6th 
of March, 1649, they did acknowledge their obligation, and declare their resolution, to 
observe the rule of Remonstrating; first the breaches of Peace for craving just 
reparation, of using all fair means of giving a preceding warning of three months, 
before any Engagement of these Kingdoms in war, so they do again renew the same, 
and accordingly renewed the Acts of Posture and Leavy for putting this Kingdom in 
readiness in case of invasion, which were made the former year when they wrote the 
foresaid Letter of the 6th of March, all which they do profess solemnly to be done by 
them in the sincerity of their hearts; not out of any policy to catch advantages, nor for 
any other end or design whatsoever, but merely for their own defence, which they do 
account abundantly sufficient to remove all grounds of jealousies, and misreports of 
their intentions, and to take away all pretence of necessity of the marching of forces 
for defence of the borders of {62} England; and on the other part being informed of a 
resolution in England to send an Army to Invade this Kingdom, they desired to know 
whether these who have the present power in England do acknowledge themselves 
obliged, or by their answer will oblige themselves and declare their Resolutions to 
observe the foresaid way and order upon their part to us, and plainly and clearly to 
declare, whether their Forces do march for offence or defence, whether with intention 
for keeping only within the borders of England or coming within ours, which way of 
procedure for clearing each others, and dealing plainly, is not only agreeable to 
particular Treaties, and to the many Ties, Bonds and Declarations past betwixt these 
Kingdoms, but also to the Law of God, and practice of his People in his Word, and to 
the common law and practice, even of heathen Nations, much more of Christian 
Covenanted Kingdoms, and may prevent many evils & dangerous consequences, 
which may fall out, even beyond and contrary to the intentions of the Nations, by their 
Armies lying near others upon their borders, although merely upon intended defence: 
This did indeed savour of a spirit of peace; but since the coming of these men into the 
Land there hath been such pride and bitterness of spirit, that not only were all essays 
of peace neglected, but every motion tending thereto, whether made by any amongst 
ourselves, or hinted at by any amongst them, were slighted and some time entertained 
with disdain, reproach and contempt; and albeit the invasion was unjust, yet certainly 
it was our duty to have followed and endeavoured peace so far as it was 
possible, Rom. 12.18, If it be possible, as much as lieth in you, live peaceably with all 
men. Heb. 12.14, Follow peace with all men, and holiness, without which no man 
shall see God. Psalm 120.7, 1 am for peace, but when I speak they are for war. 

7. Step. The seventh is, the Publick Resolutions of Kirk and State, for bringing in the 
Malignant Party first to the Army, and then to the Judicatories, and the actual 
entrusting of them with the power of the Kingdom both Military and Civil; We 

conceive that these Publick Resolutions in the complex of them do (besides other sins 
which may be mentioned) include these: First, a conjunction with the Enemies of God 
and his Cause, which is condemned by many clear Scriptures, 2 Chron. 19.1,2, And 
Jehoshaphat {63} the King ofJudah returned to his house in peace to Jerusalem, and 
Jehu the son ofHanani the seer, went out to meet him, and said to King Jehosaphat, 
Shouldst thou help the ungodly, and love them that hate the LORD? therefore is wrath 
on thee from before the Lord. Isa. 30.1-3, Woe to the rebellious children, saith the 
LORD, that take counsel but not of me; and that cover with a covering, but not of my 
Spirit, that they may add sin to sin: That walk to go down to Egypt (and have not 
asked at my mouth) to strengthen themselves in the strength of Pharaoh, and to trust 
in the shadow of Egypt; Therefore shall the strength of Pharaoh be your shame, and 
the trust in the shadow of Egypt your confusion. Isa. 31.1-3, Woe to them that go down 
to Egypt for help, and stay on horses, and trust in chariots, because they are many, 
and in horsemen, because they are very strong, but they look not to the holy one of 
Israel, neither seek the LORD: Yet he also is wise, and will bring evil, and will not 
call back his words: But will arise against the house of the evil doers, and against the 
help of them that work iniquity: Now the Egyptians are men and not GOD, and their 
horses flesh and not spirit; when the LORD shall stretch out his hand, both he that 
helpeth shall fall, and he that is holpen shall fall down, and they all shall fall together. 
Jer. 2.18, And now what hast thou to do in the way of Egypt, to drink the waters of 
Sihor? or what hast thou to do in the way of Assyria, to drink the waters of the 
river? Jer. 13.21, What wilt thou say when he shall punish thee? (for thou hast taught 
them to be captains, and as chief over thee) shall not sorrows take thee as a woman in 
travail? (2.) The laying of a foundation of, or the establishing of a rule for employing 
and entrusting men with the interest of the Cause of GOD and of the Kingdom, who 
ought not to be employed nor entrusted, if respect be had to the qualifications required 
in the Word, viz. That they be men fearing GOD, hating covetousness and dealing 
truly, who are appointed to be rulers over thousands, hundreds, fifties, and tens, Exod. 
18.21, Moreover thou shalt provide out of all the people, able men, such as fear GOD, 
men of truth, hating covetousness; and place such over them; to be rulers of 
thousands, and rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties and rulers of tens ;and that they be 
just, ruling in the fear of God who rules over men. 2 Sam. 23.3, The GOD of 
Israel {64} said, the Rock of Israel spake to me, He that ruleth over men must be just, 
ruling in the fear of God. (3.) That there was therein a breach and violation of the 
fourth Article of the Covenant, which obligeth that we be so far from giving trust to 
Malignants, that they should endeavour to bring them to condign punishment. (4.) 
That there was therein a manifest receding from the solemn publick confession of 
sins, and engagement to duties, and from the constant tenor of our Declarations, 
Warnings, and Remonstrances and causes of humiliation these years past. Jer. 2.35- 
37, Yet thou sayest, Because I am innocent, surely his anger shall turn from me: 
Behold I will plead with thee, because thou sayest I have not sinned. Why gaddest 

thou about so much to change thy way: thou also shalt be ashamed of Egypt, as thou 
wast ashamed of Assyria; yea, thou shalt go forth from him, and thine hands upon 
thine head: for the Lord hath rejected thy confidences, and thou shalt not prosper in 
them. (5.) That there was a great deal of diffidence, and distrust in the Arm of the 
LORD, and a seeking of help from, and a resting on the arm of flesh; Jer. 17.5,6, Thus 
saith the Lord, Cursed be the man that trusteth in man, and maketh flesh his arm, and 
whose heart departeth from the LORD: for he shall be like the heath in the desert, and 
shall not see when good cometh, but shall inhabit the parched places in the 
wilderness, in a salt land and not inhabited. (6.) That there was therein a great deal of 
prevarication and deceitful dealing by many, Jer. 5.2,3, And though they say the Lord 
liveth, surely they swear falsely. O Lord, are not thine eyes upon the truth? thou hast 
stricken them, but they have not grieved, thou hast consumed them, but they have 
refused to receive correction, they have made their faces harder than a rock, they 
have refused to return: Because albeit the arguments that were used, were taken from 
necessity and other things of that kind, yet the great wheel that moved in that 
business, was a design to bring in that party into places of power and trust into the 
Army, who had been formerly put out for their malignant and disaffected carriage, 
and thereafter, albeit in the beginning of this business so great haste was pretended, 
that they could not wait for a very few days, till the Commission might convene, but 
made use of a unfrequent and occasional meeting, when not only many of the 
Members were absent, but also not advertised; yet when that which {65} was aimed at 
concerning the Modeling of the Army was obtained they did move but very slowly, 
and Acted nothing at all for many months thereafter; nay, not till long after the Army 
was completely Leavied, and until they had gotten the Act of Classis also rescinded, 
and that Party brought to the Parliament aswell as to the Army, and until the General 
Assembly did sit down, that they might have their approbation of these proceedings so 
far as was fit for them to meddle with. (7.) There was in it a real stumbling and 
offence to the most part of the godly in the Land, whose hearts were much grieved, 
and their hands exceedingly weakened thereby, together with the making glad and 
strengthening the ungodly, and disaffected and profane in the Land, Jer. 23.14, / have 
seen also in the Prophets of Jerusalem an horrible thing, they commit adultery and 
walk in lies; they strengthen also the hands of evil doers, that none doth return from 
his wickedness; they are all to me as Sodom, and the inhabitants thereof as 
Gomorrah. Ezek. 13.22, Because with lies ye have made the hearts of the righteous 
sad, whom I have not made sad; and strengthened the hands of the wicked, that he 
should not return from his wicked works, by promising him life. Lastly, the state of our 
Cause was thereby upon the matter turned upside-down by entrusting the Work and 
people of God to the enemies thereof, it being known and made manifest that these 
men did retain the same principles, and did drive on the same designs which could not 
but prove destructive to Religion & the People of God. 

8. Step. The next Step, is, The joining of many of the People (who are engaged with 
God by Covenant to the contrary, no less than the Rulers) with the Forces of the 
Kingdom; after that by the Resolutions there was a prevailing party of malignants 
brought to the Army, who had the strength of Counsels and Actings therein, and were 
carrying on a malignant interest; whatever question there may be of the associating of 
subjects in war with the wicked enemies of God, on the command of the Magistrate in 
a lawful cause, which seems to us to be condemned in the People of God, Isa. 8.1 1- 
18, For the Lord spake thus to me with a strong hand, and instructed me, that I should 
not walk in the way of this people, saying, Say ye not a Confederacy to all those to 
whom this People shall say, a Confederacy; neither fear ye their fear, nor be afraid. 
Sanctify the Lord of Hosts Himself, and let {66} Him be your fear, and let him be your 
dread. And he shall be for a sanctuary; but for a stone of stumbling, and for a rock of 
offence to both the houses of Israel, for a gin, and for a snare to the inhabitants of 
Jerusalem, and many among them shall stumble and fall, and be broken, and be 
snared, and be taken. Bind up the Testimony, seal the Law among my Disciples. And I 
will wait upon the Lord that hideth his face from the house of Jacob, and I will look 
for him. Behold, I and the children whom the Lord hath given me, are for signs, and 
for wonders in Israel, from the Lord of hosts which dwelleth in Mount Sion. Aswell as 
in the Magistrates; the ground of the prohibition, to wit, learning of their works, and 
the ensnaring of the People, having a more immediate connexion with the People's 
joining, than with the Magistrate's commanding them to join; yet as the thing is laid 
down in the Paper we think there will be no question about it, because it includes 
these Particulars: (1.) The joining of a People who with the consent and approbation, 
nay by the commandment and authority of their Magistrates had covenanted with the 
LORD, not to join with his Enemies. (2.) That it was when the rule of constituting the 
Army was corrupt, to wit, the Publick Resolutions, which made the case desperate and 
left no place or remedy for purging of the Army. (3.) That it was when a party of 
Malignants who had the sway of Counsels and Actings were brought to the Army, 
which being added to the former, not only made the purging of the Army in an 
ordinary way impossible, but also carried the stream and current of all their 
Resolutions and Actings into a malignant Channel; that they were the prevailing 
Party, is more manifest, than that time needs to be spent in verifying thereof. (4.) That 
they were carrying on a Malignant Interest, to wit, the establishing the King in the 
exercise of his Power in Scotland, and the re-investing him with the Government 
inEngland, when he had not yet abandoned his former enmity to the Work and people 
of God; and the securing of Power in their own hands under him: And though none of 
these four had concurred (all which we believe will be acknowledged by un-biassed 
men) yet there was a sin in the People's joining, because few or none of these who did 
join, did give any testimony against the Magistrate's employing of the Malignant 
Party, but went willingly after the commandment, Hosea 5.11, Ephraim is 
oppressed {67} and broken in judgment, because he willingly obeyed and went after 

the commandment. It is acknowledged to have been the People's duty, even by these 
who justify their joining with them upon the command of the Magistrate, to have 
bemoaned it before the Lord, and in their stations to have testified against it before 

9. Step. The ninth Step is, the prelimiting and corrupting of the General Assembly, in 
regard of the free and right constitution thereof. General Assemblies rightly constitute 
in their liberties and freedom, as they are one of the most precious Ordinances of 
JESUS CHRIST, so have they been most wholesome and profitable means in this 
Kirk, for the purging and preserving all the Ordinances of CHRIST in the Land; and 
therefore as it hath been the care of all the faithful servants of God in the Land, to 
vindicate and preserve their right constitution and due liberty and freedom; so in the 
promoting of any course of defection hath Satan always studied to entrench 
thereupon, and to corrupt the same. That the General Assembly was prelimited this 
year, is evident by the Letter written by the Commission of the General Assembly to 
the Presbyteries, with an Act sent therewith, appointing, that all these who remain 
unsatisfied in the Publick Resolutions, after Conference, and did continue to oppose 
the same, should be cited to he General Assembly; Which Letter and Act had such 
influence on many Presbyteries, that though there were in them many able and faithful 
men who were unsatisfied with the Publick Resolutions, yet very few of these were 
chosen to be Commissioners; and where any such persons were elected, there was for 
the most part either Protestations against it, or else another election of other persons; 
by which it came to pass, that almost all these were incapacitated to sit in the 
Assembly, and the Meeting was almost wholly made up only of these who had been 
instrumental in carrying on the former defection, or were consenting thereto, and were 
approving thereof. A more gross prelimitation than this could not readily be, that men, 
intrusted by the General Assembly with the Publick Affairs, and to preserve the 
liberty thereof, should first (contrary to their trust) open a door for bringing in the 
Malignant Party, and then shut the door against the sitting of all these in the 
Assembly, where their proceedings were to be tried, who did not before their coming 
{68} there, approve of their opening the door to the Malignants; which was not only 
to make defection themselves, but to involve others therein, and to take away the 
remedy thereof. Beside this gross prelimitation, there was also divers other particulars 
of importance that fell out in the Meeting itself, in the constituent Members in the 
liberty & freedom of voicing, which were set down at length in the Protestation made 
at St. Andrews against that Meeting, and the Reasons afterwards penned for 
strengthening thereof, and therefore we shall not need in this place to repeat these 
things, but recommends the reading of them to such as desire more fully to be 
informed in these particulars. It were tedious to fall on the Acts of that Assembly, and 
Warnings issued by them. These things we now leave, as a subject requiring a more 
large and distinct consideration; desiring only this one thing to be pondered and 

considered: That besides their ratifying and approving the Proceedings of the former 
Commission (which were in many things the great grief of all the godly in the Land) 
in such ample manner, as even (in way of expression) is not free of some flattery and 
vanity; and besides the censuring of some honest men for no other thing but only 
protesting against them; and besides, the emitting of Warnings reflecting exceedingly 
on former pious and warrantable proceedings, they have laid a foundation for 
censuring all Ministers and Professors, and for keeping such out of the Ministry, who 
do not approve of all these proceedings, which have this last year so much vexed and 
grieved the godly, and so much rejoiced and made glad the Malignant Party and 
wicked of the Land: And if these things shall be accordingly executed and take effect, 
what persecution shall there be of many godly Ministers, Elders, Expectants, and 
Professors; and what a Ministry, and what a Church shall we have in a few years? 

10. Article. 

The last Head of the Lord's controversy that is mentioned, is deep security and 
obstinacy, impenitency and incorrigibleness under all these, and under all the dreadful 
strokes of God, and tokens of his indignation against us, because of the same, so that 
whilst he continues to smite, we are so far from humbling ourselves, that {69} we 
grow worse and worse, and sin more and more: that it is so with us, will not (we 
suppose) be denied by any godly man amongst us, who knows and observes the 
Land's condition, and the present temper and carriage of the Inhabitants; every man 
crying out almost for his affliction, but none almost mourning for his sin. We think it 
may be truly said, That sin and iniquity of all kinds, and amongst all ranks of persons 
hath been more multiplied and increased in Scotland since the defeat at Dumbar, than 
in many years before, and that this Nation was not so dull, hard-hearted, and 
impenitent under any of the former rods wherewith the Lord did smite us these years 
past, as under these rods wherewith he now smites us; and that this doth much 
heighten our iniquity, and speak sad things to come, if not repented of, is evident 
from Isaiah 1.5, Why should ye be stricken any more? ye will revolt more and more: 
the whole head is sick, and the whole heart is faint. Isa. 9A3-l6,For the People 
turneth not unto him that smiteth them, neither do they seek the Lord of Hosts. 
Therefore the Lord will cut off from Israel head and tail, root & branch in one day. 
The Ancient and Honourable, he is the head; and the Prophet that teacheth lies, he is 
the tail. For the Leaders of this People cause them to err, and they that are led of 
them, are destroyed. Jer. 5.3, O Lord, are not thine eyes upon the truth? thou hast 
stricken them, but they have not grieved; thou hast consumed them, but they have 
refused to receive correction: they have made their faces harder than a rock, they 
have refused to return. Jer. 8.4-7, Moreover, thou shalt say unto them, Thus saith the 

Lord, Shall they fall, and not arise? shall he turn away and not return? Why then is 
this People of Jerusalem slidden back by a perpetual backsliding? they holdfast 
deceit, they refuse to return, I hearkened and heard, but they spake not aright; no man 
repented him of his wickedness, saying, What have I done? every one turneth to his 
course as the horse rusheth into the battle. Yea, the Stork in the Heaven knoweth her 
appointed times, and the Turtle, and the Crane, and the Swallow observe the time of 
their coming; but my People know not the judgment of the Lord. Isa. 42.23-25, Who 
among you will give ear to this? who will hearken and hear for the time to come? 
Who gave Jacob for a spoil and Israel to the robbers? did not the Lord, He, against 
whom we have sinned? for they would not walk in his ways, neither {70} were they 
obedient to his Law. Therefore he hath poured upon him the fury of his anger, and the 
strength of battle; and it hath set him on fire round about, yet he knew not; and it 
burned him yet he laid it not to heart. Lev. 26.14-39, But if you will not hearken to 
me, and will not do all these Commandments; And if ye shall despise my Statutes, or if 
your soul abhor my Judgments, so that ye will not do all my Commandments, but that 
ye break my Covenant: I also will do this unto you, I will even appoint over you 
terror, consumption, and the burning-ague; that shall consume the eyes, & cause 
sorrow of heart: and ye shall sow your seed in vain, for your enemies shall eat it. And 
I will set my face against you, and ye shall be slain before your enemies: they that 
hate you shall reign over you, and ye shall flee when none pursueth you. And if you 
will not yet for all this hearken unto me, then I will punish you seven times more for 
your sins. And I will break the pride of your power; and I will make your Heaven as 
Iron and your Earth as Brass: And your strength shall be spent in vain; for your Land 
shall not yield her increase, neither shall the Trees of the Land yield their fruits. And 
if ye walk contrary unto me, and will not hearken unto me, I will bring seven times 
more plagues upon you, according to your sins. I will also send wild beasts among 
you, which shall rob you of your children, and destroy your cattle, and make you few 
in number, and your high ways shall be desolate. And if you will not be reformed by 
these things, but will walk contrary unto me: Then will I also walk contrary unto you, 
and will punish you yet seven times for your sins. And I will bring a sword upon you, 
that shall avenge the quarrel of my Covenant: and when you are gathered together 
within your Cities, I will send the pestilence among you; and ye shall be delivered into 
the hand of the enemy. And when I have broken the staff of your bread, ten women 
shall bake your bread in one oven, and they shall deliver you your bread again by 
weight; and ye shall eat and not be satisfied. And if you will not for all this hearken 
unto me, but walk contrary unto me: Then I will walk contrary unto you also in fury; 
and I, even I, will chastise you seven times for your sins. And ye shall eat the flesh of 
your sons, and the flesh of your daughters shall ye eat. And I will destroy your high 
places, and cut down your Images, and cast your carcasses upon the {71 } carcasses 
of your Idols, and my soul shall abhor you. And I will make your Cities waste, and 
bring your Sanctuaries unto desolation, and I will not smell the savour of your sweet 

Odours. And I will bring the Land into desolation; and your enemies which dwell 
therein shall be astonished at it. And I will scatter you among the Heathen, and will 
draw out a sword after you; and your Land shall be desolate, and your Cities waste. 
Then shall the Land enjoy her Sabbaths as long as it lieth desolate, and ye be in your 
enemies' Land; even then shall the Land rest, and enjoy her Sabbaths. As long as it 
lieth desolate, it shall rest; because it did not rest in your Sabbaths when ye dwelt 
upon it. And upon them that are left alive of you, I will send afaintness into their 
hearts in the Lands of their enemies; and the sound of a shaken leaf shall chase them; 
and they shall flee, as fleeing from a sword, and they shall fall when none pur sueth 
them. And they shall fall one upon another as it were before a sword, when none 
pursueth; and ye shall have no power to stand before your enemies. And ye shall 
perish among the Heathen, and the Land of your enemies shall eat you up. And they 
that are left of you, shall pine away in their iniquity in your enemies' Lands, and also 
in the iniquities of their fathers shall they pine away with them. 


I A Humble 









Printed in the year 1653. 


ALTHOUGH we are not ignorant, that mockers of all sorts may take occasion by this 
Acknowledgement of the Sins of Ministers, to strengthen themselves in their prejudices 
at our persons and Callings, and turn this unto our reproach, and that some may 
misconstrue our meaning therein, as if we did thereby intend to render the Ministry of 
this Church base and contemptible, which is far from our thoughts, We knowing and 
being persuaded in ourselves, that there are many able, godly, and faithful Ministers 
in the Land; yet being convinced that we are called to humble ourselves, and to justify 
the Lord in all the contempt that he hath poured upon us: That they who shall know 
our sins, may not stumble at our judgments: We have thought it our duty to punish this 
following Discovery and Acknowledgement of the corruptions and sins of Ministers, 
That it may appear how deep our hand is in the Transgression, and that the Ministers 
o/ Scotland have no small accession to the drawing on of these judgments that are 
upon the Land. 

Only in this following Acknowledgment we desire it may be considered, That there are 
here enumerated some sins, whereof there be but some few Ministers guilty, and 
others whereof more are guilty, and not a few, which are the sins of these whom the 
Lord hath kept from the more gross corruptions herein mentioned; And that it is not to 
be wondered at, if the Ministry of Scotland be yet in a great measure unpurged, 
Considering that there was so wide a door opened for the entering of corrupt persons 
into the Ministry, for the space of above thirty years under the tyranny of Prelates, 
and that also there hath been so many diversions from, and interruptions of 
endeavours to have a purged Ministry in this Land. 



Of The 


First, such as are before their entry 
to the Ministery. 

1. LIGHTNESS and profanity in conversation, unsuitable to that holy Calling 
which they did intend, not throughly repented of. 

2. Corrupt education of some in the Prelatical and Arminian way, whereby their 
corruptions and errors were drunken in, and abilities improven, for 
strengthening and promoving the same, not repented of. 

3. Not studying to be in CHRIST, before they be in the Ministry; nor to have the 
practical knowledge and experience of the Mystery of the Gospel in 
themselves, before they preach it to others. 

4. Neglecting to fit themselves for the Work of the Ministry in not improving 
prayer and fellowship with God, education at Schools and opportunities of a 
lively Ministry, and other means, and not mourning for these neglects. {76} 

5. Not studying self-denial, nor resolving to take up the Cross of CHRIST. 

6. Negligence to entertain sight and sense of sin and misery, not wrestling against 
corruption, nor studying of mortification and subduedness of spirit. 

Secondly, in entering. 

1 . CARNAL, corrupt and crooked ways for entering to the Ministry, such as 
bribing in the time of Prelacy, solicitation of friends and the like; whereby 
many have not entered by the door, but did climb up another way. 

2. Entering to the Ministry by an implicit, execrable, Canonical Oath and 
subscription given to the Prelates for acknowledging them, and advancing their 
corruptions introduced and to be introduced. 

3. Entering to the Ministry without trials, and receiving ordination either from the 
Prelate, or by a recommendation from him to the Presbytery, and sometimes 
without or against the mind of the Presbytery. 

4. Entering either only by Presentations, or by purchased Supplications from the 
plurality of the Parishioners, without or against the consent of the godly in the 

5. Entering to the Ministry without respect to a Commission from Jesus Christ, by 
which it hath come to pass, that many have run unsent. 

6. Entering to the Ministry not from the love of Christ, nor from a desire to 
honour God in gaining of souls, but for by-ends, for a name, and for livelihood 
in the World, notwithstanding solemn declaration to the contrary at admission. 

7. Some offering themselves to trial without abilities, and studying to conceal and 
hide their weakness, by making use of the help and pains of some friend and 
acquaintance, or other men's Papers, in several parts of the trial; and some 
authorized to preach, and others admitted to the Ministry, who have little or no 
ability for performing the duties thereof. 

8. Too much weighed with inclination to be called to the Ministry in a place 
where we have carnal relation. {77} 

Thirdly, After entering, which is first in their private 
condition and conversation. 

1 . IGNORANCE of God, want of nearness with him, and taking up little of God 
in reading, meditating, and speaking of him. 

2. Exceeding great selfishness in all that we do, acting from ourselves, for 

3. Not caring how unfaithful and negligent others were, so being it might 
contribute a testimony to our faithfulness and diligence: but being rather 
content, if not rejoicing at their fault. 

4. Least delight in these things wherein lieth our nearest communion with God, 
great inconstancy in our walk with God, and neglect of acknowledging of him 
in all our ways. 

5. In going about duties, least careful of these which are most remote from the 
eyes of men. 

6. Seldom in secret prayer with God, except to fit for Publick performances, and 
even that much neglected, or gone about very superficially. 

7. Glad to find excuses for the neglect of duties. 

8. Neglecting the reading of Scriptures in secret, for edifying ourselves as 
Christians, only reading them insofar as may fit us for our duty as Ministers, 
and oft-times neglecting that. 

9. Not given to reflect upon our own ways, nor suffering conviction to have a 
thorough work upon us, deceiving ourselves by resting upon abstinence from, 

and abhorrency of evils, from the light of a natural conscience, and looking 

upon the same as an evidence of a real change. 
10. Evil guarding of, and watching over the heart, and carelessness in self- 
searching, which makes much unacquaintedness with ourselves, and 

estrangedness from God. 
1 l.Not guarding nor wrestling against seen and known ills, especially our 

12. A facility to be drawn away with the temptations of the time, and other 

particular temptations, according to our inclinations and fellowship. 
13. Instability and wavering in the ways of God through the fears of persecution, 

hazard, or loss of esteem, and declining duties, {78} because of the fear of 

jealousies and reproaches. 
14. Not esteeming the Cross of Christ and sufferings for his Name honourable, but 

rather shifting sufferings from self-love. 
15.Deadness of spirit after all the sore strokes of God upon the Land. 
16. Little conscience made of secret humiliation and fasting by ourselves apart, and 

in our Families; that we might mourn for our own and the Land's guiltiness and 

great back- sliding s, and little applying the Causes of publick humiliation to our 

own hearts. 
17. Finding of our own pleasures, when the Lord calls for humiliation. 
18. Not laying to heart the sad and heavy sufferings of the people of God abroad, 

and the not thriving of the Kingdom of Jesus Christ, and the power of godliness 

among them. 

19. Refined hypocrisy, desiring to appear what indeed we are not. 

20. Studying more to learn the language of God's people nor [than] their exercise. 

21. Artificial confessing of sin without repentance, professing to declare iniquity, 
and not resolving to be sorry for sin. 

22. Confession in secret much slighted, even of these things whereof we are 

23. No Reformation after solemn acknowledgments and private Vows, thinking 
ourselves exonered after Confession. 

24. Readier to search out and censure faults in others, than to see or take with them 
in ourselves. 

25. Accounting of our estate and way according to the estimation that others have 
of us. 

26. Estimation of men as they agree with or disagree from us. 

27. Not fearing to meet with trials, but presuming in our own strength to go 

through them unshaken. 
28. Not learning to fear by the falls of gracious men, nor mourning and Praying for 


29. Not observing particular deliverances and rods, nor improving of them for the 
honour of God, and edification of ourselves and others. 

30. Little or no mourning for the corruption of our nature, and less groaning under, 
and longing to be delivered from {79} that body of death, the bitter root of all 
our other evils. 

Secondly, in our Conversation and Walk 
with and before these of our Flocks and others. 

1. FRUITLESS conversing ordinarily with others for the worse rather than for the 

2. Foolish jesting away time with impertinent and useless discourse, very 
unseeming the Ministers of the Gospel. 

3. Spiritual purposes often dying in our hands, when they are begun by others. 

4. Carnal familiarity with natural wicked and Malignant men; whereby they are 
hardened, the People of God stumbled, and we ourselves blunted. 

5. Slighting fellowship with these by whom we might profit. 

6. Desiring more to converse with these that might better us by their parts, than 
such as might edify us by their graces. 

7. Not studying opportunities of doing good to others. 

8. Shifting of prayer and other duties when called thereto, choosing rather to omit 
the same, than we should be put to them ourselves. 

9. Abusing of time in frequent recreation and pastimes, and loving our pleasures 
more than God. 

10. Taking little or no time to Christian Discourse with young men trained up for 
the Ministry. 

1 1. Common and ordinary discourse on the Lord's Day. 

12. Slighting Christian Admonition from any of our Flocks, or others, as being 
below us, and ashamed to take light and warning from private Christians. 

13. Dislike of, or bitterness against such as deal freely with us by admonition or 
reproof, and not dealing faithfully with others who would welcome it off our 

14. Not making conscience to take pains on the ignorant and profane for their good. 

15. Our not mourning for the ignorance, unbelief, and miscarriages of the Flocks 
committed unto us. 

16. Impatient bearing of the infirmities of others, rashly breaking out against their 
persons, more than studying to gain them from their sins. {80} 

17. Not using freedom with these of our charge, and for most part spending our 

time with them in common discourses, not tending to Edification. 
18. Neglecting Admonition to friends and others in an evil course. 
19.Reservedness in laying out our condition to others. 

20. Not praying for men of a contrary judgment, but using Reservedness and 
distance from them, being more ready to speak of them than to them, or to God 
for them. 

21. Not weighed with the fallings and miscarriages of others, but rather taking 
advantage thereof for justifying ourselves. 

22. Talking of, and sporting at the faults of others, rather than compassionating of 

23. No pains taken in religious ordering of our families, nor studying to be Patterns 

to other Families in the government of ours. 
24. Hasty anger and passion in our Families and conversation with others. 
25.Covetousness, worldly- mindedness, and an inordinate desire after the things of 

this life, upon which followeth a neglect of the Duties of our Calling, and our 

being taken up for the most part with the things of the World. 
26. Want of Hospitality and Charity to the Members of Christ. 
27. Not cherishing Godliness in the People, and some being afraid of it, and hating 

the people of God for Piety, and studying to bear down and quench the work of 

the Spirit amongst them. 

Thirdly in the discharge of Ministerial Duties. 
Which is first in regard of labouring in the Word and Doctrine. 

1 . NOT entertaining that edge of spirit in Ministerial Duties, which we found at 
the first entry to the Ministry. 

2. Great neglect of reading and other preparation, or preparation merely Literal 
and bookish, making an idol of a book, which hindereth Communion with God, 
or presuming on bygone assistance, and praying little. 

3. Trusting to gifts, parts, and pains taken for preparation, whereby God is 
provoked, to blast good matter well ordered and worded. {81 } 

4. Careless in employing CHRIST, and drawing virtue out of him for enabling us 
to preach in the Spirit and in power. 

5. In prayer for assistance, we pray more for assistance to the Messenger than to 
the Message which we carry, not caring what become of the Word, if we be 
with some measure of assistance carried on in the Duty. 

6. The matter we bring forth is not seriously recommended to God by Prayer to be 
quickened to his People. 

7. Neglect of Prayer after the Word is Preached, that it may receive the first and 
latter rain; and that the Lord would put in the hearts of his People what we 
speak to them in his Name. 

8. Neglect to warn in Preaching of snares and sin in Pub lick affairs by some, and 
too much frequent and unnecessary speaking by others of Publick business and 

9. Exceeding great neglect and unskillfulness to set forth the excellencies and 
usefulness of Jesus Christ, and the New Covenant which ought to be the great 
subject of a Minister's Study and Preaching. 

10. Speaking of CHRIST more by hear-say than from knowledge and experience, 
or any real impression of him upon the heart. 

1 l.The way of most Minister's Preaching too Legal. 

12. Want of sobriety in Preaching the Gospel, not savouring any thing but what is 
new, so that the Substantials of Religion bear but little bulk. 

13. Not Preaching Christ in the simplicity of the Gospel, nor ourselves the People's 
servants for Christ's sake. 

14. Preaching of Christ not that the People may know Him, but that they may think 
we know much of him. 

15. Preaching anent Christ's leaving the Land without brokenness of heart, or up- 
stirring of ourselves to take hold of him. 

16. Not Preaching with bowels of compassion to them who are in hazard to perish. 

17. Preaching against Publick sins, neither in such a way nor for such an end as we 
ought for the gaining of souls, and drawing men out of their sins, but rather 
because it is of our concernment to say something of these evils. 

18. Bitterness instead of zeal, in speaking against Malignants, {82} Sectaries, and 
other scandalous persons, and unfaithfulness therein. 

19. Not studying to know the particular condition of the souls of the people, that 
we may speak to them accordingly, nor keeping a particular record thereof, 
though convinced of the usefulness of this. 

20. Not wealing what may be most profitable and Edifying, and want of wisdom in 
application to the several conditions of souls, not so careful to bring home the 
point by application as to find out the Doctrine, nor speaking the same with that 
reverence which becomes his Word and Message. 

21. Choosing texts whereon we have something to say rather than suiting to the 
condition of souls and times, and frequent preaching of the same things that we 
may not be put to the pains of new study. 

22. Such a way of Reading, Preaching, and Prayer as puts us in these Duties further 
from GOD. 

23. Too soon satisfied in the discharge of Duties, and holding off challenges with 

24. Indulging the body, and wasting much time idly. 
25. Too much eyeing our own credit and applause, and being taken with it, when 

we get it, and unsatisfied when it is wanting. 
26.Timorousness in delivering God's Message, letting people die in reigning sins 

without warning. 
27. Voguiness and pride of heart because the Lord fulfilled our word in the year 

28. Rash speaking in the Name of the Lord in reference to the success of our 

Armies of late. 

29. Studying the discharge of Duties, rather to free ourselves from censure, than to 
approve ourselves to God. 

30. Shifting to preach in places where we were for the time for fear of displeasing, 
in this time of Publick backsliding and trial. 

31. Not making all the Counsel of God known to his People, and particularly not 
giving testimony in times of defection. 

32. Not studying to profit by our own doctrine, nor the doctrine of others. 
33. For most part preaching, as we ourselves were not {83 } concerned in the 

Message we carry to the People. 
34. Not rejoicing at the conversion of sinners, but content with the unthriving of the 

Lord's Work amongst his people as suiting best with our minds, fearing if they 

should thrive better, we should be more put to it, and less esteemed of by them. 
35. Many in Preaching and practice, bearing down the power of godliness. 
36. Unfaithful discharge of Ministerial Duties in attending the Armies. 
37. We Preach not as before God, but as to men, as doth appear by the different 

pains in our preparation to speak to our ordinary hearers, and to others to whom 

we would approve ourselves. 
3 8. Not making the Ministry a work in earnest as a thing to be accounted for in 

every duty, which makes much laziness and unfruitfulness, doing duties ex 

officio, not ex conscientia officio, rather to discharge our Calling nor [than] our 


Secondly, In the Administration of Sacraments. 

1 . In Baptism. 

1 . LITTLE minding in ourselves, or stirring up of others to mind the obligation 
that lies on us and them, by the Covenant made with God in Baptism. 

2. Not instructing Parents in their duty, not charging them with their promise 
given at the Baptizing of their Children, nor trying what pains they have taken 
to perform the same. 

3. Being very superficial and formal in the administration of this Ordinance. 

2. In the Administration of the Lord's Supper. 

1. ADMITTING of mixed multitudes to the Lord's Table, not separating betwixt 
the precious and the vile. 

2. Unequal dealing with poor and rich, in admitting to, or suspending and 
debarring from the Lord's Table. 

3. Great neglect to prepare for that action, preparing for it more as Ministers, than 
as Christians. 

4. Carnal and unworthy carriage of Ministers at the Communion, {84} being more 
desirous to have that action by our hands, with credit to ourselves, than with 
profit to the people. 

5. Thinking when that action is by-hand, that we have a vacancy from other 
Ministerial duties for a time. 

6. Little wrestling with God to have the People prepared for it, or the guilt of 
profaning of it by ourselves and others taken away. 

Fourthly, in Visiting. 

1 . NEGLIGENT, lazy and partial visiting the sick; if they be poor, we go once, 
and only when sent for; If they be rich and of better note, we go oftener, and 
unsent for. 

2. Not knowing how to speak with the tongue of the Learned a word in season to 
the weary and exercised in conscience, nor to such as are under the loss of 
husband, wife, children, friends or goods, for the improving of these trials to 
their spiritual advantage, nor to dying persons. 

3. In visiting, wearying, or shunning to go to such as we esteem graceless. 

4. Not visiting the People from house to house, nor praying with them at fit 

Fifthly, In Catechising. 

1. LAZIE and negligent in Catechising. 

2. Not preparing our hearts before, nor wrestling with God for a blessing to it, 
because of the ordinariness, and apprehended easiness of it; whereby the Lord's 
Name is much taken in vain, and the People little profited. 

3. Looking on that Exercise as a work below us, and not condescending to study a 
right and profitable way of instructing the Lord's People. 

4. Partial in Catechising, passing by these that are rich and of better quality, 
though many of such stand ordinarily in great need of instruction. 

5. Not waiting upon and following the ignorant, but passionately upbraiding of 
them often. 

Sixthly, In Ruling and Discipline. 

1. NOT making use of this Ordinance of Church-Censures for gaining of souls, 
but turning it into a mere Civil punishment; {85} and in the administration 
thereof becoming either coldrife [heartless], or without a spirit of meekness, 
and using a way either merely rational by worldly wisdom, or merely 
authoritative, more than by motives drawn from the love of Christ; and by our 
carriage in Judicatories putting a human shape upon the Ordinances of Jesus 
Christ, carrying ourselves in too stately a way, like the men of this world. 

2. Partiality in administration of Censures with respect of persons, not using the 
like faithful freedom towards high and low, sib and fremd [friend and 

3. Rash taking on us to open and shut Christ's door. 

4. By our practice, teaching (as it were) formality in Repentance to offenders, 
hardening them in their sins, by accepting bare forms without any evidence of 
Repentance, and loosing when we were persuaded Christ did not loose: and of 
late turning profession of Repentance into a State engine for men to step unto 
preferment and publick employments. 

5. Following scandalous persons with the highest Censures of the Kirk, with little 
or no care to hold them up to God. 

6. Want of compassion to these on whom Discipline is exercised, not labouring to 
convince them of sin, but imperiously and with passion instead of zeal 
threatening them, thinking it sufficient if we be obeyed, though they be not 
gained to Christ. 

7. Superficial, sinful, and slight censuring one another, at times appointed for that 
end in Presbyteries and Synods, and neglect of faithful freedom and love in 
performing that duty. 

8. Admitting of men to the Ministry who were not qualified with Grace aswell as 
Gifts, notwithstanding the Word of God and Constitutions of this Kirk do 
require the one, aswell as the other; which hath been the fountain of many evils. 

9. Great unfaithfulness in bringing in, and holding in, unworthy persons in the 
Ministry, and keeping Censures off unfaithful men. 

10. Unfaithfulness in giving Testimonials and Recommendations, and receiving 
persons upon Testimonials merely negative, especially Expectants and Students 
of Divinity. 

1 1 . Constituting Elderships of such men as are known to be ignorant, profane, and 
disaffected to the Work of God, and being {86} careless to have them 
consisting of the most able and godly men within the Congregation, a great 
cause of much ignorance, profane and scandalous carriage among the People. 

12. Neglecting to remove from the Elderships such as are ignorant and scandalous. 
13. Neglecting to hold out the necessary qualifications and duties of Ruling Elders, 

and to stir them up to their duty. 

14. Not carrying ourselves in Judicatories and other ways toward Ruling Elders as 
towards Brethren, and joint Overseers in the work of the Lord. 

15. Not making conscience of keeping Kirk Judicatories, but wearying of the 
expenses and attendance, whereby divers things hath been hastert [hurried] and 
miscarried therein; willing deserting of them, and shunning to give testimony in 
them, for fear of inconveniences. 

16. Not stooping to a gaining way in Debates, nor making application to God for 
knowledge of his mind in things debated, before they pass in a conclusion. 

17. Wearying to hear men fully who represent their doubts, and to weigh all the 
Arguments that can be represented for the negative, before the affirmative be 

18. Too great animosities in Judicatories, even about matters of small weight. 

19. Pride, impatience, and peremptoriness of spirit, not staying on others clearness 
in our debates and conclusions, through which it comes to pass that we judge 
rashly of precious men; and alienation of affections steals in and is entertained. 

20. Hasty concluding of Acts & pressing obedience thereto without convincing 
grounds holden forth from Scripture for satisfying the consciences of the Lord's 

21. Silence in Assemblies when unsatisfied, being carried by the authority of men, 
and too much following other men's light and suppressing their own. 

22. Making Votes subservient to the humors of men and human interests. 

23. Some altogether neglecting wholesome Acts and Constitutions of Assemblies, 
and others, receiving their Acts too implicitly. 

24. Too bitter expressions against Adversaries in Pub lick Papers and Sermons, for 
eschewing reproaches, whereof there is no fruit but irritation. {87} 

25. Abusing transportations by making them too frequent, and almost the ordinary 
way of Planting places of any eminency; sometimes enacting them when there 
is no pressing necessity, and without tender endeavouring the satisfaction of the 
People interested and without care of providing them thereafter. 

In relation to the Publick. 

1 . NOT studying the controversies of the time, that we might be enabled to hold 
forth light, and convince gain-sayers of the truth. 

2. Not fearing to meddle in matters too high for us, and desiring to be taken notice 
of, more than to be stedable [serviceable, faithful] in the Publick. 

3. Following of Publick business, with too much neglect of our Flocks. 

4. Following of Publick business with much pride and passion, and loftiness of 
spirit upon carnal principles and desire to be esteemed of, rather than true zeal 
to Jesus Christ and his matters, and with little or no prayer. 

5. Superficial admitting of all to the Covenants, and solemn Acknowledgement, 
without taking sufficient pains to instruct and inform them in the knowledge of 
the things contained therein. 

6. Being too instrumental for bringing disaffected persons to trust. 

7. Unequal zeal against enemies, cooling in our zeal against one enemy as it is 
increased against another. 

8. Much repining at the judgments of God upon the Land from carnal respects, 
and transferring the causes of the wrath off ourselves upon others. 

9. Too easy satisfied in such things as might tend to the prejudice of Christ's 
interest, weighing the consequences of great Revolutions more by respect to 
ourselves, than to his honor. 

10. Agreeing to receive the King to the Covenant barely upon writing, without any 
apparent evidences of a real change of Principles. 

1 l.Not using freedom in shewing what we were convinced, was sinful in reference 
to the late Treaty with the King, but going on therein when we were not 
satisfied in our consciences for fear of reproach and of being mistaken. {88} 

12. Silence in Publick, and not giving Testimony after discovery of the King's 
Commission given to James Graham; for invading the Kingdom. 

13. Pressing the King to make a Declaration to the world, whilst we knew by clear 
evidences that he had no real conviction of the things contained therein. 

14. Too much desiring to lurk upon by-ends, when called to give a Testimony. 

15. Not bearing Testimony against Publick Defections in a right and spiritual way. 

16. Unfaithfulness in bearing burden with them, whom the Lord raised up to be his 
witnesses against the publick backslidings; omitting to bear Testimony 
ourselves upon carnal respects and lukewarmness in adhering to publick 
Testimonies formerly given. 

A Postscript. 

Which could not be gotten printed. 

THE foregoing causes of God's wrath being on several days of solemn Humiliation 
laid out & confessed before the Lord, we thought fit to subjoin here some other causes 
of our late Humiliation; as 

1 . The late declining of the Land by consenting & engaging unto the publick 
actings of the present Powers, so contrary to the Covenants, & so much 
prejudicial to Religion & liberties. 

2. The defection of divers, who are accounted religious, from their former 
principles, unto Separation, & other Errours of the time. 

3. The Usurpation & Carriage of the present pretended Assembly. 

4. The English their great Encroachments upon the Liberties of this Church. 

5. That the promised Conversion of His Ancient people of the Jews may be 

6. That the Lord may make our present resolutions for reforming ourselves, our 
Elderships & people effectual, and may bless our Endeavours to this purpose.